- 1670 – Charles II and Louis XIV signed a secret treaty, requiring England to aid France in its war against the Dutch Republic and the future conversion of Charles to Catholicism, in return for Louis making large payments to Charles and promising to aid him if there was a rebellion in England.
- 1831 – An expedition led by British naval officer and explorer James Clark Ross (pictured) reached the North Magnetic Pole, the first to do so.
- 1868 – The Navajo and the U.S. government signed an agreement, allowing those interned at Fort Sumner to return to their ancestral lands.
- 1988 – The Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty came into effect, banning all American and Soviet land-based missiles with a range of 500 to 5,500 km (310 to 3,420 mi).
- 2015 – The cruise ship Dongfang zhi Xing capsized in the Yangtze river, resulting in 442 deaths, China's worst peacetime maritime disaster.
- 455 – After having removed Petronius Maximus from the imperial throne, Vandals led by Genseric entered Rome and sacked the city for two weeks.
- 1886 – Grover Cleveland married Frances Folsom (wedding depicted), becoming the only U.S. president to wed in the White House.
- 1967 – German university student Benno Ohnesorg was killed during a protest in West Berlin against the visit of Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi of Iran, sparking the formation of the militant 2 June Movement.
- 1995 – Bosnian War: U.S. Air Force captain Scott O'Grady was shot down while patrolling the NATO no-fly zone over Bosnia, but ejected safely and was rescued six days later.
- 2010 – A gunman carried out a shooting spree in Cumbria, England, killing 12 people and injuring 11 others before committing suicide.
- 1658 – Pope Alexander VII appointed François de Laval as the first apostolic vicar of New France.
- 1892 – Liverpool F.C. (stadium pictured), one of England's most successful football clubs, was founded.
- 1940 – Nazi official Franz Rademacher proposed that the island of Madagascar be made available as a destination for the resettlement of the Jewish population of Europe.
- 1950 – Maurice Herzog and Louis Lachenal, members of the French Annapurna expedition, became the first climbers to reach the summit of a peak higher than 8,000 metres (26,247 ft) above sea level.
- 1973 – At the Paris Air Show, a Tupolev Tu-144 broke up in mid-air, killing the six members of the crew and eight bystanders on the ground.
- 1411 – King Charles VI of France granted a monopoly to the people of Roquefort-sur-Soulzon for the ripening of Roquefort cheese (example pictured).
- 1561 – The spire of Old St Paul's Cathedral in London was destroyed by fire, probably caused by lightning.
- 1920 – The Kingdom of Hungary lost 72 percent of its territory and 64 percent of its population with the signing of the Treaty of Trianon in Paris.
- 1940 – Second World War: The remaining Allied forces protecting the Dunkirk evacuation surrendered, ending the Battle of Dunkirk; in response, British prime minister Winston Churchill gave a speech in which he declared "We shall fight on the beaches".
- 1974 – Major League Baseball's Cleveland Indians hosted Ten Cent Beer Night, but had to forfeit the game to the Texas Rangers due to rioting by drunken fans.
- 663 – The Daming Palace became the government seat and royal residence of the Tang empire during Emperor Gaozong's reign.
- 1610 – The masque Tethys' Festival was performed at the Palace of Whitehall to celebrate the investiture of Henry Frederick as Prince of Wales.
- 1899 – Filipino general Antonio Luna (pictured) was assassinated in the midst of the Philippine–American War.
- 1963 – The arrest of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini for publicly denouncing Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi sparked protests in Iran.
- 2001 – Tropical Storm Allison made landfall in Texas, causing approximately $8.5 billion in damage, making it the costliest Atlantic tropical cyclone that was never a major hurricane.
- 1822 – Alexis St. Martin, a Canadian voyageur, was accidentally shot in the stomach; investigations of his injury led to a greater understanding of the processes of digestion.
- 1882 – The Shewan army defeated Gojjame forces at the Battle of Embabo, an event that contributed to the supremacy of Shewa within the Ethiopian Empire.
- 1894 – Colorado Governor Davis Hanson Waite ordered his state militia to protect and support the miners engaged in the Cripple Creek miners' strike.
- 1912 – The largest volcanic eruption of the 20th century began, forming Novarupta (lava dome pictured) in the Alaska Peninsula.
- 1944 – World War II: The largest amphibious military operation in history began with Allied troops landing on the beaches of Normandy in France.
- 421 – Roman emperor Theodosius II married Aelia Eudocia, who later helped protect Greek pagans and Jews from persecution.
- 1832 – The Reform Act, which is widely credited with launching modern democracy in the United Kingdom, received royal assent.
- 1900 – American temperance activist Carrie Nation (pictured) entered a saloon in Kiowa, Kansas, and destroyed its stock of alcoholic beverages with rocks.
- 1981 – The Israeli Air Force attacked and disabled the Osirak nuclear reactor, under the assumption that it was about to start producing plutonium to further an Iraqi nuclear-weapons program.
- 1998 – Three white supremacists murdered James Byrd Jr., an African American, by chaining him behind a pickup truck and dragging him along an asphalt road in Jasper, Texas.
- 793 – Scandinavian raiders sacked the abbey at Lindisfarne in one of the earliest recorded incidents of Viking activity in the British Isles.
- 1783 – Laki, a volcanic fissure in Iceland, began an eight-month eruption, triggering major famine and causing massive fluoride poisoning.
- 1950 – Thomas Blamey (pictured) became the only Australian to attain the rank of field marshal.
- 1995 – Danish-Canadian programmer Rasmus Lerdorf released the first version of PHP, the most popular server-side language for websites.
- 2007 – A major storm caused the bulk carrier MV Pasha Bulker to run aground in New South Wales, Australia.
- 411 BC – Wealthy Athenians overthrew the democratic government of ancient Athens, replacing it with a short-lived oligarchy known as the Four Hundred.
- 1523 – Parisian printer Simon de Colines was fined for printing Biblical commentary by Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples without obtaining prior approval from theologians.
- 1856 – The first company of Mormon handcart pioneers left Iowa City, Iowa, for Salt Lake City, Utah.
- 1928 – Australian aviator Charles Kingsford Smith and his crew landed the Southern Cross (pictured) in Brisbane, completing the first transpacific flight from the United States to Australia.
- 2010 – A child suicide bomber attacked a wedding in Nadahan, Afghanistan, killing at least 40 people and injuring at least 70 others.
- 1838 – At least 28 Indigenous Australians were massacred at Myall Creek, New South Wales.
- 1868 – Mihailo Obrenović, Prince of Serbia, was assassinated in the park of Košutnjak in Belgrade.
- 1918 – World War I: Italian torpedo boats sank the Austro-Hungarian dreadnought SMS Szent István off the Dalmatian coast, killing 89 of the crew.
- 1957 – Led by John Diefenbaker (pictured), the Progressive Conservative Party won a plurality of House of Commons seats in the Canadian federal election.
- 2008 – War in Afghanistan: A U.S. airstrike resulted in the reported deaths of eleven paramilitary members of the Pakistani Frontier Corps and eight Taliban fighters in Pakistan's tribal areas.
- 1594 – Philip II of Spain recognized the sovereign rights of the principalía, the local nobles and chieftains of the Philippines who had converted to Catholicism.
- 1847 – Prince Afonso died at the age of two, leaving his father Pedro II, the last emperor of Brazil, without a male heir.
- 1920 – During their national convention in Chicago, Republican Party leaders gathered in negotiations at The Blackstone Hotel (pictured) to select their presidential candidate, leading to the phrase "smoke-filled room".
- 1955 – The deadliest accident in motorsport history occurred when two cars collided during a running of the 24 Hours of Le Mans, resulting in 84 deaths.
- 2007 – Mudslides caused by heavy monsoon rainfall and exacerbated by hill cutting killed at least 128 people in Chittagong, Bangladesh.
- 1240 – The Disputation of Paris, in which four rabbis defended the Talmud against Nicholas Donin's accusations of blasphemy, began in the court of King Louis IX.
- 1954 – Dominic Savio (portrait shown), who was 14 years old when he died, was canonised by Pope Pius XII, making him one of the youngest non-martyred saints in the Catholic Church.
- 1967 – The U.S. Supreme Court struck down laws restricting interracial marriage in the landmark civil rights case Loving v. Virginia.
- 1994 – The Boeing 777, the world's largest twinjet, made its maiden flight.
- 313 – The Edict of Milan, an agreement between Constantine the Great and Licinius to treat Christians benevolently within the Roman Empire, was posted in Nicomedia.
- 1805 – Lewis and Clark Expedition: Meriwether Lewis became the first white American to sight the Great Falls (Black Eagle Falls pictured) of the Missouri River.
- 1944 – Second World War: At the Battle of Villers-Bocage, German tank commander Michael Wittmann destroyed around 30 Allied vehicles in less than 15 minutes.
- 1970 – "The Long and Winding Road" became the Beatles' twentieth and final number-one single on the Billboard Hot 100 chart.
- 2019 – Two oil tankers were attacked in the Gulf of Oman amidst heightened tensions between Iran and the United States.
- 1381 – During the Peasants' Revolt in England, rebels stormed the Tower of London, killing the Lord Chancellor and the Lord High Treasurer.
- 1821 – The Funj Sultanate, in present-day Sudan, was conquered by Egypt without a fight.
- 1900 – The second of the German Naval Laws was passed, doubling the size of the Imperial German Navy.
- 1940 – The Soviet Union issued an ultimatum to Lithuania, demanding that the Red Army be allowed to enter the country and form a pro-Soviet government.
- 2017 – A fire severely damaged Grenfell Tower (pictured) in North Kensington, London, killing 72 people.
- 1215 – Magna Carta, an influential charter of rights, was agreed to and sealed by King John of England at Runnymede.
- 1520 – Pope Leo X issued the papal bull Exsurge Domine, censuring 41 propositions from Martin Luther's Ninety-five Theses and subsequent writings, and threatening him with excommunication unless he recanted.
- 1920 – Three African-American circus workers were lynched by a mob in Duluth, Minnesota (memorial pictured), a crime that shocked the country for having taken place in the Northern United States.
- 1996 – The Troubles: The Provisional Irish Republican Army detonated a truck bomb in the commercial centre of Manchester, England, injuring more than 200 people and causing widespread damage to buildings.
- 2012 – American acrobat Nik Wallenda became the first person to walk a tightrope stretched directly over Niagara Falls.
- 632 – The final king of the Sasanian Empire of Iran, Yazdegerd III, ascended the throne at the age of eight.
- 1755 – After a two-week siege, the French commander of Fort Beauséjour in present-day New Brunswick, Canada, surrendered to British forces, marking the end of Father Le Loutre's War.
- 1904 – Irish author James Joyce (pictured) began his relationship with Nora Barnacle, and subsequently used the date to set the actions for his 1922 novel Ulysses.
- 1911 – The technology company IBM was founded as the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company in Endicott, New York.
- 2010 – The Tobacco Control Act of Bhutan came into force, banning the sale and production of tobacco in the country.
- 1462 – Ottoman–Hungarian wars: Wallachian forces led by Vlad Dracula (portrait shown) attacked an Ottoman camp at night in an attempt to assassinate Mehmed II.
- 1795 – French Revolutionary Wars: Off the coast of Brittany, a Royal Navy squadron commanded by William Cornwallis fended off a numerically superior French Navy fleet.
- 1940 – Second World War: RMS Lancastria was sunk by German aircraft near Saint-Nazaire, France, causing thousands of fatalities in Britain's worst maritime disaster.
- 1952 – Guatemalan Revolution: The Guatemalan Congress passed Decree 900, redistributing unused land greater than 224 acres (0.91 km2) in area to local peasants.
- 860 – Rus' forces sailed into the Bosporus in a fleet of about 200 vessels and started pillaging the suburbs of Constantinople (depicted).
- 1858 – Charles Darwin received a manuscript by fellow naturalist Alfred Russel Wallace on natural selection, which encouraged Darwin to publish his theory of evolution.
- 1940 – World War II: Charles de Gaulle gave his Appeal of 18 June speech, often considered to be the origin of the French Resistance.
- 1983 – Iranian teenager Mona Mahmudnizhad and nine other women were hanged in Shiraz because of their membership in the Baháʼí Faith.
- 2012 – Salman bin Abdulaziz Al Saud was appointed crown prince of Saudi Arabia.
- 1846 – The first officially recorded baseball game in U.S. history using modern rules was played in Hoboken, New Jersey, with the "New York Nine" defeating the New York Knickerbockers 23–1.
- 1867 – Second French intervention in Mexico: Emperor Maximilian I of Mexico (pictured) was executed by firing squad in Querétaro City.
- 1970 – The international Patent Cooperation Treaty was signed, providing a unified procedure for filing patent applications to protect inventions in each of its contracting states.
- 1978 – Garfield, created by Jim Davis, debuted in American newspapers nationwide, eventually becoming one of the world's most widely syndicated comic strips.
- 2010 – The royal wedding of Victoria, Crown Princess of Sweden, and Daniel Westling took place in Stockholm Cathedral.
- 1782 – The Congress of the Confederation adopted the Great Seal of the United States (depicted), used to authenticate certain documents issued by the federal government.
- 1900 – Boxer Rebellion: The Imperial Chinese Army began a 55-day siege of the Legation Quarter in Beijing.
- 1960 – The Mali Federation gained independence from France, but dissolved into Mali and Senegal two months later.
- 2009 – Iranian student Neda Agha-Soltan was shot dead in Tehran during the presidential election protests; footage of her death was widely distributed over the Internet, making it "probably the most widely witnessed death in human history".
- 1734 – Marie-Joseph Angélique, a black slave, was tortured and hanged after having been convicted of starting a fire that burned much of Old Montreal.
- 1864 – New Zealand Wars: A British victory against the Māori King Movement brought the Tauranga campaign to an end.
- 1919 – During a general strike (newsreel featured) in Winnipeg, Canada, members of the Royal North-West Mounted Police attacked a crowd of strikers, armed with clubs and revolvers.
- 1940 – World War II: The main offensive of the unsuccessful Italian invasion of France began.
- 2000 – President Bill Clinton awarded the Medal of Honor to 22 Asian Americans, mostly from the 442nd Regimental Combat Team, for actions during World War II.
- 813 – Byzantine–Bulgarian wars: Outnumbered Bulgarian forces defeated the Byzantine army at the Battle of Versinikia.
- 1813 – War of 1812: After learning of a forthcoming American attack, Laura Secord walked 20 mi (32 km) from Queenston, Upper Canada, to warn British lieutenant James FitzGibbon (depicted).
- 1948 – More than 800 West Indian immigrants disembarked from the British troopship HMT Empire Windrush at Tilbury, England, becoming known as the "Windrush generation".
- 1986 – Argentine footballer Diego Maradona scored both the "hand of God" goal and the "Goal of the Century" against England during a quarter-final match of the FIFA World Cup.
- 2009 – Two Metro trains collided in Washington, D.C., killing nine people and injuring eighty others.
- 1780 – American Revolutionary War: The Continental Army defeated British and Hessian troops at the Battle of Springfield, effectively ending British ambitions in New Jersey.
- 1887 – The Parliament of Canada passed the Rocky Mountains Park Act, creating Banff National Park (pictured) in Alberta as the country's first national park.
- 1956 – In a nationwide referendum, Gamal Abdel Nasser was elected President of Egypt, a post he held until his death in 1970.
- 1972 – President Richard Nixon signed Title IX into law as part of the Education Amendments, prohibiting gender discrimination in any educational program receiving U.S. federal funds.
- 2014 – Under the terms of UN Security Council Resolution 2118, the last of Syria's declared chemical weapons were shipped out for destruction.
- 474 – Western Roman emperor Glycerius, who was not recognized by his Eastern counterpart Leo I, was forced to abdicate.
- 1314 – In the decisive battle of the First War of Scottish Independence, Scottish forces led by Robert the Bruce defeated English troops under Edward II near Bannockburn, Scotland.
- 1717 – The first Grand Lodge of Freemasonry, the Premier Grand Lodge of England, was founded in London.
- 1940 – Second World War: The British Army carried out Operation Collar, its first commando raid into German-occupied France.
- 2010 – Julia Gillard (pictured) was sworn in as the first female prime minister of Australia after incumbent Kevin Rudd declined to contest a leadership spill in the Labor Party.
- 1658 – Anglo-Spanish War: The largest battle ever fought on Jamaica, the three-day Battle of Rio Nuevo, began.
- 1910 – The United States Congress passed the Mann Act, which prohibited the interstate transport of females for "immoral purposes".
- 1940 – Second World War: Operation Aerial, an evacuation of nearly 200,000 Allied soldiers (pictured) from French ports, was completed.
- 1960 – Two cryptographers working for the U.S. National Security Agency left on vacation to Mexico, and proceeded to defect to the Soviet Union.
- 2006 – Israeli soldier Gilad Shalit was captured in a cross-border raid near the Kerem Shalom crossing with the Gaza Strip, and held hostage by Hamas until 2011.
- 1740 – War of Jenkins' Ear: Spanish troops stormed the British-held strategically crucial position of Fort Mose in Spanish Florida.
- 1886 – French chemist Henri Moissan (pictured) successfully isolated elemental fluorine, for which he later won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry.
- 1907 – Organized by Vladimir Lenin and Joseph Stalin, among others, Bolshevik revolutionaries robbed a bank stagecoach in Tiflis, present-day Georgia.
- 1945 – At a conference in San Francisco, delegates from 50 nations signed a charter establishing the United Nations.
- 2003 – The U.S. Supreme Court struck down sodomy laws in the country in the landmark decision Lawrence v. Texas.
- 1743 – War of the Austrian Succession: In the last time that a British monarch led troops in battle, Allied forces commanded by George II (depicted) defeated the French army at Dettingen, Bavaria.
- 1864 – American Civil War: General Sherman's frontal assault against the Confederate Army of Tennessee failed, but did not stop the Union Army from advancing on Atlanta.
- 1905 – First Russian Revolution: The crew of the Russian battleship Potemkin began a mutiny against their officers.
- 1976 – The first identifiable case of Ebola occurred in Sudan.
- 2015 – Ignition of corn starch caused a dust fire at a water park in New Taipei City, Taiwan, killing 12 people and injuring more than 400 others.
- 1846 – Belgian musician Adolphe Sax patented his design of the saxophone (example pictured).
- 1895 – The U.S. Court of Private Land Claims ruled that James Reavis's claim to 18,600 sq mi (48,000 km2) of land in present-day Arizona and New Mexico was "wholly fictitious and fraudulent".
- 1950 – Korean War: South Korean forces began the Bodo League massacre, summarily executing at least 60,000 suspected North Korean sympathizers.
- 1990 – Paperback Software, a company founded by Adam Osborne, was found guilty of copyright infringement for using Lotus 1-2-3's look-and-feel interface in its own spreadsheet program.
- 1149 – Second Crusade: The Zengid army of Nur ad-Din destroyed the forces of Antioch led by Prince Raymond.
- 1776 – The first privateer battle of the American Revolutionary War, the Battle of Turtle Gut Inlet, was fought near Cape May, New Jersey.
- 1914 – During the second day of anti-Serb riots in Sarajevo (aftermath pictured), numerous buildings owned by ethnic Serbs were vandalized and looted.
- 1950 – The United States defeated England during the FIFA World Cup in one of the greatest upsets in the competition's history.
- 1995 – Atlantis became the first U.S. Space Shuttle to dock with the Russian space station Mir as part of the Shuttle–Mir program.
- 1559 – During a jousting match, King Henry II of France was mortally wounded when fragments of Gabriel Montgomery's lance pierced his eye.
- 1859 – French acrobat Charles Blondin crossed Niagara Gorge, making him one of the world's most famous tightrope walkers.
- 1908 – A massive explosion occurred near the Podkamennaya Tunguska river in Siberia, flattening more than 2,150 square kilometres (830 sq mi) of forest (sample pictured).
- 1960 – The Belgian Congo gained independence from colonial rule, beginning a period of instability that led to the dictatorship of Joseph-Désiré Mobutu in 1965.