The Ijen volcano complex is located on East Java, Indonesia. An active vent at the edge of a crater lake is a source of elemental sulfur, and supports a labor-intensive mining operation. Escaping volcanic gases are channeled through a network of ceramic pipes, resulting in condensation of molten sulfur. The deep red condensate pours slowly from the ends of these pipes and pools on the ground, turning bright yellow as it solidifies. The miners break the cooled material into large pieces and carry it away in baskets. Miners carry loads of up to 90 kilograms (200 lb), up to the crater rim and then 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) down the mountainside for weighing. Most miners make this journey twice a day, and in 2010 could earn the equivalent of US$13 for their efforts.Photograph credit: Candra Firmansyah