Samuel Fischer, later Samuel von Fischer (24 December 1859 – 15 October 1934), was a Hungarian-born German publisher, the founder of S. Fischer Verlag. Fischer was born in Liptau-Sankt-Nikolaus/Liptószentmiklós (now Liptovský Mikuláš), Liptau/Liptó megye, northern Hungary. He was trained as a bookseller in Vienna and moved to Berlin shortly afterwards. In Berlin, he joined the bookseller and publisher Hugo Steinitz. Fischer took on increasing responsibility for new publishing endeavours and managed to launch his own firm in 1886, the S. Fischer, Verlag.
The Fischer publishing house first became known by introducing the works of Ibsen to German stages and by supporting the naturalist circle in Berlin. Samuel Fischer founded the theatre society Freie Bühne with Otto Brahm to avoid censorship.
He died in Berlin, Germany.