National Endowment for the Humanities
The National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) is an independent federal agency of the U.S. government, established by the National Foundation on the Arts and the Humanities Act of 1965 (Pub.L. 89–209), dedicated to supporting research, education, preservation, and public programs in the humanities. The NEH is housed at 400 7th St SW, Washington, D.C. From 1979 to 2014, NEH was at 1100 Pennsylvania Avenue, N.W., Washington, D.C. in the Nancy Hanks Center at the Old Post Office.
|Formed||September 29, 1965|
|Jurisdiction||Federal government of the United States|
|Headquarters||Constitution Center (400 7th St SW, Washington, D.C.), Washington, D.C.|
|Annual budget||$153 million USD (2008)|
On February 10, 2020, the NEH was presented by the Trump administration with a FY2021 budget that included an orderly wind-down of the agency.
History and overviewEdit
The NEH provides grants for high-quality humanities projects to cultural institutions such as museums, archives, libraries, colleges, universities, public television, and radio stations, and to individual scholars.
NEH was created in 1965 under the National Foundation on the Arts and Humanities, which included the National Endowment for the Arts and later the Institute for Museum Services, as a move to provide greater investment in culture by the federal government. NEH was based upon recommendation of the National Commission on the Humanities, convened in 1963 with representatives from three US scholarly and educational associations, the Phi Beta Kappa Society, the American Council of Learned Societies (ACLS), and the Council of Graduate Schools.
The agency creates incentives for excellent work in the humanities by awarding grants that strengthen teaching and learning in the humanities in schools and colleges across the nation, facilitate research and original scholarship, provide opportunities for lifelong learning, preserve and provide access to cultural and educational resources and to strengthen the institutional base of the humanities. As part of its mandate to support humanities programs in every US state and territory, the agency supports a network of private, nonprofit affiliates, the 56 humanities councils in the states and territories of the United States.
Jim Leach leadership, 2009–2013Edit
The ninth NEH Chair was Jim Leach. President Obama nominated the former Iowa congressman, a Republican, to chair the NEH on June 3, 2009; the Senate confirmed his appointment in August 2009. Leach began his term as the NEH Chair on August 12, 2009 and stepped down in May 2013. Between November 2009 and May 2011, Leach conducted the American "Civility Tour" to call attention to the need to restore reason and civility back into politics, a goal that in his words was "central to the humanities." Leach visited each of the 50 states, speaking at venues ranging from university and museum lecture halls to hospitals for veterans, to support the return of non-emotive, civil exchange and rational consideration of other viewpoints. According to Leach, "Little is more important...than establishing an ethos of thoughtfulness and decency of expression in the public square. Words reflect emotion as well as meaning. They clarify—or cloud—thought and energize action, sometimes bringing out the better angels in our nature, sometimes lesser instincts."
William Adams leadership, 2014–2017Edit
The tenth Chair of the NEH was William 'Bro' Adams, who served from 2014 to 2017. President Obama nominated Adams on April 4, 2014; Adams was confirmed by the Senate in a voice vote on July 9, 2014. Adams appointed Margaret (Peggy) Plympton as the Deputy NEH Chair in January 2015.
Before Adams's appointment, the NEH was headed by Acting Chair Carole M. Watson. Adams resigned his appointment on May 23, 2017, when he cited accomplishments under the "Common Good" initiative and the appointment of new administration officials.
The Endowment is directed by the NEH Chair. Advising the Chair is the National Council on the Humanities, a board of 26 distinguished private citizens who are appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate. The National Council members serve staggered six-year terms.
The NEH ChairEdit
The Endowment is directed by a Chair, who has legal authority to approve all recommendations and award grants and cooperative agreements. The Chair is nominated by the President and confirmed with the advice and consent of the U.S. Senate. The Chair's decisions are informed by recommendations from the National Council on the Humanities, peer-reviewers who are selected to read each project proposal submitted to the Endowment, as well as by the Endowment's staff.
Major program officesEdit
The NEH has six grant-making divisions and offices:
- The Division of Preservation and Access awards grants to preserve, maintain, and improve access to primary sources in the humanities, in both digital and analog form.
- The Division of Public Programs supports projects that bring the humanities to large audiences through libraries and museums, television and radio, historic sites, and digital media.
- The Division of Research makes awards to support the publication of books in and outside the humanities.
- The Division of Education works to support and strengthen teaching of the humanities.
- The Office of Federal/State Partnership collaborates with 56 state and territory humanities councils to strengthen local programs.
- The Office of Digital Humanities advises on use of technology in the humanities and coordinates.
The Office of Challenge Grants, dissolved in 2017, administered grants intended to support capacity building and encourage fundraising in humanities institutions. The Division of Preservation and Access now offers a grant program that is similar to previous programs in the Challenge Grants office.
These are special priorities of the endowment that indicate critical areas of the humanities as identified by the NEH Chair. They differ from the divisions of the endowment in that they do not sponsor or coordinate specific grant programs.
Bridging Cultures initiativeEdit
Bridging Cultures was an NEH initiative that explored ways the humanities promote understanding and mutual respect for people with diverse histories, cultures, and perspectives. Projects supported through this initiative focused on cultures globally as well as within the United States.
This initiative, launched in 2014, marks a priority to make awards that promote understanding of the military experience and to support returning veterans.
We the PeopleEdit
We the People was an NEH special funding stream initiated by NEH Chair Coles, using dedicated funds available to each Chair of the NEH, which was designed to encourage and enhance the teaching, study, and understanding of American history, culture, and democratic principles. The initiative supports projects and programs that explore significant events and themes in American nation's history, which advance knowledge of the principles that define America.
According to NEH, the initiative led a renaissance in knowledge about American history and principles among all US citizens. The initiative was launched on Constitution Day, September 17, 2002 and active through 2009.
Since 1965, the NEH has sponsored many projects, including:
- "Treasures of Tutankhamen," an exhibition seen by more than 1.5 million people.
- The Civil War, a 1990 documentary by Ken Burns seen by 38 million Americans.
- Library of America, editions of novels, essays, and poems celebrating America's literary heritage.
- United States Newspaper Project, an effort that cataloged and microfilmed 63.3 million pages of newspapers dating from the early United States. The program now digitizes newspapers and makes them available through Chronicling America, a web resource maintained by the Library of Congress.
- Fifteen Pulitzer Prize–winning books, including those by James M. McPherson, Louis Menand, Joan D. Hedrick, and Bernard Bailyn.
- EDSITEment, a Web project bringing the "best of the humanities on the web" to teachers and students, started in 1997.
- Reference archives, in Athens and Boston, of archaeological photographs taken by Eleanor Emlen Myers.
- The Valley of the Shadow, a digital history project created by Edward L. Ayers and William G. Thomas III on the experience of Confederate Civil War soldiers in the United States.
- What's on the Menu, digitization and community-sourced transcription of New York Public Library's restaurant menu collection.
Since 1972 the NEH has sponsored the Jefferson Lecture in the Humanities, which it describes as "the highest honor the federal government confers for distinguished intellectual achievement in the humanities." The Jefferson Lecturer is selected each year by the National Council on the Humanities. The honoree delivers a lecture in Washington, D.C., during the spring, and receives an honorarium of $10,000. The stated purpose of the honor is to recognize "an individual who has made significant scholarly contributions in the humanities and who has the ability to communicate the knowledge and wisdom of the humanities in a broadly appealing way."
National Humanities Medal and Charles Frankel PrizeEdit
The National Humanities Medal, inaugurated in 1997, honors individuals or groups whose work has deepened the nation's understanding of the humanities, broadened citizens' engagement with the humanities, or helped preserve and expand Americans' access to important resources in the humanities. Up to 12 medals can be awarded each year. From 1989 to 1996 the NEH awarded a similar prize known as the Charles Frankel Prize. The new award, a bronze medallion, was designed by David Macaulay, the 1995 winner of the Frankel Prize. Lists of the winners of the National Humanities Medal and the Frankel Prize are available at the NEH website.
Starting in 1969, the NEH published a periodical called Humanities; that original incarnation was discontinued in 1978. In 1980, Humanities magazine was relaunched (ISSN 0018-7526). It is published six times per year, with one cover article each year dedicated to profiling that year's Jefferson Lecturer. Most of its articles have some connection to NEH activities. The magazine's editor since 2007 has been journalist and author David Skinner. From 1990 until her death in 2007, Humanities was edited by Mary Lou Beatty (who had previously been a high-ranking editor at the Washington Post).
- "Visiting NEH". National Endowment for the Humanities. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
- "NEH Statement on Proposed FY 2021 Budget". Retrieved 10 February 2020.
- "How NEH Got Its Start". National Endowment for the Humanities. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
- Robin Pogrebin, "Obama Names a Republican to Lead the Humanities Endowment", New York Times, June 4, 2009.
- Robin Pogrebin, "Rocco Landesman Confirmed as Chairman of the National Endowment for the Arts", New York Times, August 7, 2009.
- "E.J. Dionne Welcomes Jim Leach's Call for Civility". The Washington Post. 30 November 2009. Retrieved 3 November 2012.
- "President Obama Announces his Intent to Nominate Dr. William "Bro" Adams as Chairman of the National Endowment for the Humanities". Retrieved 11 April 2014.
- "Obama nominates William 'Bro' Adams to be next head of National Endowment for the Humanities". Minneapolis Star Tribune. 10 April 2014. Archived from the original on 13 April 2014. Retrieved 11 April 2014.
- "Adams Tapped by President Obama". Colby College. Retrieved 14 April 2014.
- "Senate confirms head of US Humanities Endowment". The Washington Post. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
- "Deputy Chair". National Endowment for the Humanities. Archived from the original on 14 March 2015. Retrieved 25 February 2015.
- "NEH Chairman William D. Adams Announces Resignation". Washington, D.C.: National Endowment for the Humanities. May 22, 2017. Retrieved 23 May 2017.
- "National Council on the Humanities". National Endowment for the Humanities. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
- "Information about the Divisions and Offices that Administer NEH Grant Programs". National Endowment for the Humanities. Archived from the original on 30 March 2014. Retrieved 11 April 2014.
- "About the Bridging Cultures Initiative". Retrieved 25 July 2014.
- "NEH Veterans Initiative". Retrieved 2 August 2014.
- "We the People". Archived from the original on 14 July 2014. Retrieved 13 July 2014.
- "The Writings of Henry D. Thoreau". March 2, 2010. Archived from the original on 2010-03-02.
- "About We the People". Archived from the original on 2016-04-03.
- "King Tut Comes to America". Archived from the original on 2017-01-24. Retrieved 2017-01-27.
- "Ken Burns The Civil War". Archived from the original on 2017-01-24. Retrieved 2017-01-27.
- "Library of America". National Endowment for the Humanities. Archived from the original on 2017-01-24. Retrieved 2017-01-27.
- "Newspapers: The First Draft of History". National Endowment for the Humanities. Archived from the original on 2017-01-24. Retrieved 2017-01-27.
- "NEH & Books". Archived from the original on 2016-09-26. Retrieved 2017-01-27.
- "Edsitement". National Endowment for the Humanities. Archived from the original on 2017-01-24. Retrieved 2017-01-27.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
- Myers, J. Wilson. "Eleanor Emlen Myers, 1925–1996" (PDF). Breaking Ground: Women in Old World Archaeology. Archived from the original (PDF) on 20 February 2015. Retrieved 20 February 2015.
- "Valley of the Shadow". National Endowment for the Humanities. Archived from the original on 2017-01-24. Retrieved 2017-01-27.
- "What's on the menu?". National Endowment for the Humanities. Archived from the original on 2017-01-24. Retrieved 2017-01-27.
- Jefferson Lecturers at NEH Website (retrieved January 22, 2009).
- Awards and Honors Archived 2009-01-17 at the Wayback Machine at NEH Website (retrieved January 23, 2009).
- National Humanities Medals Archived 2011-07-21 at the Wayback Machine at the NEH website (retrieved January 23, 2009).
- Winners of the Charles Frankel Prize at NEH Website (retrieved January 23, 2009).
- "Editor's Note, September/October 2007". National Endowment for the Humanities. Archived from the original on 2016-08-27. Retrieved 2016-08-21.
- "Editor's Note, March/April 2007". National Endowment for the Humanities. Retrieved 2016-08-21.
- Sullivan, Patricia (2007-02-09). "Mary Lou Beatty; Editor at NEH, Post". The Washington Post. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 2016-08-21.
- Jensen, Richard. The Culture Wars, 1965-1995: A Historian's Map" Journal of Social History (Vol. 29, Special Issue: Social History and the American Political Climate: Problems and Strategies (1995)), pp. 17-37 online
- Kammen, Michael. "Culture and the State in America." Journal of American History 83.3 (1996): 791-814. online
- Koch, Cynthia M. "Postscript: The Endowments at Fifty." in Funding Challenges and Successes in Arts Education (IGI Global, 2018) pp. 32-48.
- Miller, Stephen. Excellence and Equity: The National Endowment for the Humanities (UP of Kentucky, 2015).
- Redaelli, Eleonora. "Understanding American cultural policy: the multi-level governance of the arts and humanities." Policy Studies 41.1 (2020): 80-97. online
- Topf, Mel A. "The NEH and the Crisis in the Humanities." College English 37.3 (1975): 229-242. online
- Zainaldin, Jamil. "Public works: NEH, Congress, and the state humanities councils." Public Historian 35.1 (2013): 28-50. online
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