List of parties to the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea

The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS) is the international agreement that resulted from the third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS III), which took place between 1973 and 1982. The convention was opened for signature on 10 December 1982 and entered into force on 16 November 1994 upon deposition of the 60th instrument of ratification.[1]

  Parties
  Parties, dually represented by the European Union
  Signatories
  Non-parties

The convention has been ratified by 168 parties, which includes 167 states (164 United Nations member states plus the UN Observer state Palestine, as well as the Cook Islands and Niue) and the European Union.[2] An additional 14 UN member states have signed, but not ratified the convention.

Subsequently, the "Agreement relating to the implementation of Part XI of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea" was signed in 1994, amending the original Convention. The agreement has been ratified by 150 parties (all of which are parties to the Convention), which includes 149 states (146 United Nations member states plus the UN Observer state Palestine, as well as the Cook Islands and Niue) and the European Union.[3] An additional three UN member states (Egypt, Sudan, USA) have signed, but not ratified the agreement.

As per Article 4 of the Agreement, following adoption of the Agreement any state which ratifies the convention also becomes a party to the Agreement. Additionally, only states which are parties to the Convention can ratify the Agreement.

List of partiesEdit

States with a dagger ( ) are landlocked states.

State[2][3][4] Convention Agreement
Signed Deposited Method Signed Deposited Method
  Albania Jun 23, 2003 Accession Jun 23, 2003 Accession
  Algeria Dec 10, 1982 Jun 11, 1996 Ratification Jul 29, 1994 Jun 11, 1996 Ratification
  Angola Dec 10, 1982 Dec 5, 1990 Ratification Sep 7, 2010 Accession
  Antigua and Barbuda Feb 7, 1983 Feb 2, 1989 Ratification May 3, 2016 Accession
  Argentina Oct 5, 1984 Dec 1, 1995 Ratification Jul 29, 1994 Dec 1, 1995 Ratification
  Armenia   Dec 9, 2002 Accession Dec 9, 2002 Accession
  Australia Dec 10, 1982 Oct 5, 1994 Ratification Jul 29, 1994 Oct 5, 1994 Ratification
  Austria   Dec 10, 1982 Jul 14, 1995 Ratification Jul 29, 1994 Jul 14, 1995 Ratification
  Azerbaijan   Jun 16, 2016 Accession Jun 16, 2016 Accession
  Bahamas Dec 10, 1982 Jul 29, 1983 Ratification Jul 29, 1994 Jul 28, 1995 Ratification
  Bahrain Dec 10, 1982 May 30, 1985 Ratification
  Bangladesh Dec 10, 1982 Jul 27, 2001 Ratification Jul 27, 2001 Accession
  Barbados Dec 10, 1982 Oct 12, 1993 Ratification Nov 15, 1994 Jul 28, 1995 Ratification
  Belarus   Dec 10, 1982 Aug 30, 2006 Ratification Aug 30, 2006 Accession
  Belgium Dec 5, 1984 Nov 13, 1998 Ratification Jul 29, 1994 Nov 13, 1998 Ratification
  Belize Dec 10, 1982 Aug 13, 1983 Ratification Oct 21, 1994 Accession
  Benin Aug 30, 1983 Oct 16, 1997 Ratification Oct 16, 1997 Accession
  Bolivia   Nov 27, 1984 Apr 28, 1995 Ratification Apr 28, 1995 Accession
  Bosnia and Herzegovina Jan 12, 1994 Succession from
  Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
  Botswana   Dec 5, 1984 May 2, 1990 Ratification Jan 31, 2005 Accession
  Brazil Dec 10, 1982 Dec 22, 1988 Ratification Jul 29, 1994 Oct 25, 2007 Ratification
  Brunei Dec 5, 1984 Nov 5, 1996 Ratification Nov 5, 1996 Accession
  Bulgaria Dec 10, 1982 May 15, 1996 Ratification May 15, 1996 Accession
  Burkina Faso Dec 10, 1982 Jan 25, 2005 Ratification Nov 30, 1994 Jan 25, 2005 Ratification
  Cabo Verde Dec 10, 1982 Aug 10, 1987 Ratification Jul 29, 1994 Apr 23, 2008 Ratification
  Cameroon Dec 10, 1982 Nov 19, 1985 Ratification May 24, 1995 Aug 28, 2002 Ratification
  Canada Dec 10, 1982 Nov 7, 2003 Ratification Jul 29, 1994 Nov 7, 2003 Ratification
  Chad   Dec 10, 1982 Aug 14, 2009 Ratification Aug 14, 2009 Accession
  Chile Dec 10, 1982 Aug 25, 1997 Ratification Aug 25, 1997 Accession
  China Dec 10, 1982 Jun 7, 1996 Ratification Jul 29, 1994 Jun 7, 1996 Ratification
  Comoros Dec 6, 1984 Jun 21, 1994 Ratification
  Democratic Republic of the Congo Aug 22, 1983 Feb 17, 1989 Ratification
  Republic of the Congo Dec 10, 1982 Jul 9, 2008 Ratification Jul 9, 2008 Accession
  Cook Islands Dec 10, 1982 Feb 15, 1995 Ratification Feb 15, 1995 Accession
  Costa Rica Dec 10, 1982 Sep 21, 1992 Ratification Sep 20, 2001 Accession
  Côte d'Ivoire Dec 10, 1982 Mar 26, 1984 Ratification Nov 25, 1994 Jul 28, 1995 Ratification
  Croatia Apr 5, 1995 Succession from
  Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Apr 5, 1995 Accession
  Cuba Dec 10, 1982 Aug 15, 1984 Ratification Oct 17, 2002 Accession
  Cyprus Dec 10, 1982 Dec 12, 1988 Ratification Nov 1, 1994 Jul 27, 1995 Ratification
  Czech Republic   Feb 22, 1993 Jun 21, 1996 Ratification
Succession to the signature of   Czechoslovakia  
Nov 16, 1994 Jun 21, 1996 Ratification
  Denmark Dec 10, 1982 Nov 16, 2004 Ratification Jul 29, 1994 Nov 16, 2004 Ratification
  Djibouti Dec 10, 1982 Oct 8, 1991 Ratification
  Dominica Mar 28, 1983 Oct 24, 1991 Ratification
  Dominican Republic Dec 10, 1982 Jul 10, 2009 Ratification Jul 10, 2009 Accession
  Ecuador Sep 24, 2012 Accession Sep 24, 2012 Accession
  Egypt Dec 10, 1982 Aug 26, 1983 Ratification Mar 22, 1995
  Equatorial Guinea Jan 30, 1984 Jul 21, 1997 Ratification Jul 21, 1997 Accession
  Estonia Aug 26, 2005 Accession Aug 26, 2005 Accession
  Eswatini   Jan 18, 1984 Sep 24, 2012 Ratification Oct 12, 1994 Sep 24, 2012 Ratification
  European Union Dec 7, 1984 Apr 1, 1998 Ratification Jul 29, 1994 Apr 1, 1998 Ratification
  Fiji Dec 10, 1982 Dec 10, 1982 Ratification Jul 29, 1994 Jul 28, 1995 Ratification
  Finland Dec 10, 1982 Jun 21, 1996 Ratification Jul 29, 1994 Jun 21, 1996 Ratification
  France Dec 10, 1982 Apr 11, 1996 Ratification Jul 29, 1994 Apr 11, 1996 Ratification
  Gabon Dec 10, 1982 Mar 11, 1998 Ratification Apr 4, 1995 Mar 11, 1998 Ratification
  Gambia Dec 10, 1982 May 22, 1984 Ratification
  Georgia Mar 21, 1996 Accession Mar 21, 1996 Accession
  Germany Oct 14, 1994 Accession Jul 29, 1994 Oct 14, 1994 Ratification
  Ghana Dec 10, 1982 Jun 7, 1983 Ratification Sep 23, 2016 Accession
  Greece Dec 10, 1982 Jul 21, 1995 Ratification Jul 29, 1994 Jul 21, 1995 Ratification
  Grenada Dec 10, 1982 Apr 25, 1991 Ratification Nov 14, 1994 Jul 28, 1995 Ratification
  Guatemala Jul 8, 1983 Feb 11, 1997 Ratification Feb 11, 1997 Accession
  Guinea Oct 4, 1984 Sep 6, 1985 Ratification Aug 26, 1994 Jul 28, 1995 Ratification
  Guinea-Bissau Dec 10, 1982 Aug 25, 1986 Ratification
  Guyana Dec 10, 1982 Nov 16, 1993 Ratification Sep 25, 2008 Accession
  Haiti Dec 10, 1982 Jul 31, 1996 Ratification Jul 31, 1996 Accession
  Honduras Dec 10, 1982 Oct 5, 1993 Ratification Jul 28, 2003 Accession
  Hungary   Dec 10, 1982 Feb 5, 2002 Ratification Feb 5, 2002 Accession
  Iceland Dec 10, 1982 Jun 21, 1985 Ratification Jul 29, 1994 Jul 28, 1995 Ratification
  India Dec 10, 1982 Jun 29, 1995 Ratification Jul 29, 1994 Jun 29, 1995 Ratification
  Indonesia Dec 10, 1982 Feb 3, 1986 Ratification Jul 29, 1994 Jun 2, 2000 Ratification
  Iraq Dec 10, 1982 Jul 30, 1985 Ratification
  Ireland Dec 10, 1982 Jun 21, 1996 Ratification Jul 29, 1994 Jun 21, 1996 Ratification
  Italy Dec 7, 1984 Jan 13, 1995 Ratification Jul 29, 1994 Jan 13, 1995 Ratification
  Jamaica Dec 10, 1982 Mar 21, 1983 Ratification Jul 29, 1994 Jul 28, 1995 Ratification
  Japan Feb 7, 1983 Jun 20, 1996 Ratification Jul 29, 1994 Jun 20, 1996 Ratification
  Jordan Nov 27, 1995 Accession Nov 27, 1995 Accession
  Kenya Dec 10, 1982 Mar 2, 1989 Ratification Jul 29, 1994 Accession
  Kiribati Feb 24, 2003 Accession Feb 24, 2003 Accession
  South Korea Mar 14, 1983 Jan 29, 1996 Ratification Nov 7, 1994 Jan 29, 1996 Ratification
  Kuwait Dec 10, 1982 May 2, 1986 Ratification Aug 2, 2002 Accession
  Laos   Dec 10, 1982 Jun 5, 1998 Ratification Oct 27, 1994 Jun 5, 1998 Ratification
  Latvia Dec 23, 2004 Accession Dec 23, 2004 Accession
  Lebanon Dec 7, 1984 Jan 5, 1995 Ratification Jan 5, 1995 Accession
  Lesotho   Dec 10, 1982 May 31, 2007 Ratification May 31, 2007 Accession
  Liberia Dec 10, 1982 Sep 25, 2008 Ratification Sep 25, 2008 Accession
  Lithuania Nov 12, 2003 Accession Nov 12, 2003 Accession
  Luxembourg   Dec 5, 1984 Oct 5, 2000 Ratification Jul 29, 1994 Oct 5, 2000 Ratification
  Madagascar Feb 25, 1983 Aug 22, 2001 Ratification Aug 22, 2001 Accession
  Malawi   Dec 7, 1984 Sep 28, 2010 Ratification Sep 28, 2010 Accession
  Malaysia Dec 10, 1982 Oct 14, 1996 Ratification Aug 2, 1994 Oct 14, 1996 Ratification
  Maldives Dec 10, 1982 Sep 7, 2000 Ratification Oct 10, 1994 Sep 7, 2000 Ratification
  Mali   Oct 19, 1983 Jul 16, 1985 Ratification
  Malta Dec 10, 1982 May 20, 1993 Ratification Jul 29, 1994 Jun 26, 1996 Ratification
  Marshall Islands Aug 9, 1991 Accession
  Mauritania Dec 10, 1982 Jul 17, 1996 Ratification Aug 2, 1994 Jul 17, 1996 Ratification
  Mauritius Dec 10, 1982 Nov 4, 1994 Ratification Nov 4, 1994 Accession
  Mexico Dec 10, 1982 Mar 18, 1983 Ratification Apr 10, 2003 Accession
  Micronesia Apr 29, 1991 Accession Aug 10, 1994 Sep 6, 1995 Ratification
  Moldova   Feb 6, 2007 Accession Feb 6, 2007 Accession
  Monaco Dec 10, 1982 Mar 20, 1996 Ratification Nov 30, 1994 Mar 20, 1996 Ratification
  Mongolia   Dec 10, 1982 Aug 13, 1996 Ratification Aug 17, 1994 Aug 13, 1996 Ratification
  Montenegro Oct 23, 2006 Succession from   Serbia and Montenegro Oct 23, 2006 Succession from   Serbia and Montenegro
  Morocco Dec 10, 1982 May 31, 2007 Ratification Oct 19, 1994 May 31, 2007 Ratification
  Mozambique Dec 10, 1982 Mar 13, 1997 Ratification Mar 13, 1997 Accession
  Myanmar Dec 10, 1982 May 21, 1996 Ratification May 21, 1996 Accession
  Namibia Dec 10, 1982 Apr 18, 1983 Ratification Jul 29, 1994 Jul 28, 1995 Ratification
  Nauru Dec 10, 1982 Jan 23, 1996 Ratification Jan 23, 1996 Accession
    Nepal   Dec 10, 1982 Nov 2, 1998 Ratification Nov 2, 1998 Accession
  Netherlands Dec 10, 1982 Jun 28, 1996 Ratification Jul 29, 1994 Jun 28, 1996 Ratification
  New Zealand Dec 10, 1982 Jul 19, 1996 Ratification Jul 29, 1994 Jul 19, 1996 Ratification
  Nicaragua Dec 9, 1984 May 3, 2000 Ratification May 3, 2000 Accession
  Niger   Dec 10, 1982 Aug 7, 2013 Ratification Aug 7, 2013 Accession
  Nigeria Dec 10, 1982 Aug 14, 1986 Ratification Oct 25, 1994 Jul 28, 1995 Ratification
  Niue Dec 5, 1984 Oct 11, 2006 Ratification Oct 11, 2006 Accession
  North Macedonia   Aug 19, 1994 Succession from
  Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Aug 19, 1994 Accession
  Norway Dec 10, 1982 Jun 24, 1996 Ratification Jun 24, 1996 Accession
  Oman Jul 1, 1983 Aug 17, 1989 Ratification Feb 26, 1997 Accession
  Pakistan Dec 10, 1982 Feb 26, 1997 Ratification Aug 10, 1994 Feb 26, 1997 Ratification
  Palau Sep 30, 1996 Accession Sep 30, 1996 Accession
  Palestine Jan 2, 2015 Accession Jan 2, 2015 Accession
  Panama Dec 10, 1982 Jul 1, 1996 Ratification Jul 1, 1996 Accession
  Papua New Guinea Dec 10, 1982 Jan 14, 1997 Ratification Jan 14, 1997 Accession
  Paraguay   Dec 10, 1982 Sep 26, 1986 Ratification Jul 29, 1994 Jul 10, 1995 Ratification
  Philippines Dec 10, 1982 May 8, 1984 Ratification Nov 15, 1994 Jul 23, 1997 Ratification
  Poland Dec 10, 1982 Nov 13, 1998 Ratification Jul 29, 1994 Nov 13, 1998 Ratification
  Portugal Dec 10, 1982 Nov 3, 1997 Ratification Jul 29, 1994 Nov 3, 1997 Ratification
  Qatar Nov 27, 1984 Dec 9, 2002 Ratification Dec 9, 2002 Accession
  Romania Dec 10, 1982 Dec 17, 1996 Ratification Dec 17, 1996 Accession
  Russia Dec 10, 1982 Mar 12, 1997 Ratification Mar 12, 1997 Accession
  Samoa Sep 28, 1984 Aug 14, 1995 Ratification Jul 7, 1995 Aug 14, 1995 Ratification
  Sao Tome and Principe Jul 13, 1983 Nov 3, 1987 Ratification
  Saudi Arabia Dec 7, 1984 Apr 24, 1996 Ratification Apr 24, 1996 Accession
  Senegal Dec 10, 1982 Oct 25, 1984 Ratification Aug 9, 1994 Jul 25, 1995 Ratification
  Serbia   Mar 12, 2001 Succession as
  Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
from   Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
May 12, 1995 Jul 28, 1995 Ratification
  Seychelles Dec 10, 1982 Sep 16, 1991 Ratification Jul 29, 1994 Dec 15, 1994 Ratification
  Sierra Leone Dec 10, 1982 Dec 12, 1994 Ratification Dec 12, 1994 Accession
  Singapore Dec 10, 1982 Nov 17, 1994 Ratification Nov 17, 1994 Accession
  Slovakia   May 28, 1993 May 8, 1996 Ratification
Succession to the signature of   Czechoslovakia  
Nov 14, 1994 May 8, 1996 Ratification
  Slovenia Jun 16, 1995 Succession from
  Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia
Jan 19, 1995 Jun 16, 1995 Ratification
  Solomon Islands Dec 10, 1982 Jun 23, 1997 Ratification Jun 23, 1997 Accession
  Somalia Dec 10, 1982 Jul 24, 1989 Ratification
  South Africa Dec 5, 1984 Dec 23, 1997 Ratification Oct 3, 1994 Dec 23, 1997 Ratification
  Spain Dec 4, 1984 Jan 15, 1997 Ratification Jul 29, 1994 Jan 15, 1997 Ratification
  Sri Lanka Dec 10, 1982 Jul 19, 1994 Ratification Jul 29, 1994 Jul 28, 1995 Ratification
  St. Kitts and Nevis Dec 7, 1984 Jan 7, 1993 Ratification
  St. Lucia Dec 10, 1982 Mar 27, 1985 Ratification
  St. Vincent and the Grenadines Dec 10, 1982 Oct 1, 1993 Ratification
  Sudan Dec 10, 1982 Jan 23, 1985 Ratification Jul 29, 1994
  Suriname Dec 10, 1982 Jul 9, 1998 Ratification Jul 9, 1998 Accession
  Sweden Dec 10, 1982 Jun 25, 1996 Ratification Jul 29, 1994 Jun 25, 1996 Ratification
   Switzerland   Oct 17, 1984 May 1, 2009 Ratification Oct 26, 1994 May 1, 2009 Ratification
  Tanzania Dec 10, 1982 Sep 30, 1985 Ratification Oct 7, 1994 Jun 25, 1998 Ratification
  Thailand Dec 10, 1982 May 15, 2011 Ratification May 15, 2011 Accession
  Timor-Leste Jan 8, 2013 Accession Jan 8, 2013 Accession
  Togo Dec 10, 1982 Apr 16, 1985 Ratification Aug 3, 1994 Jul 28, 1995 Ratification
  Tonga Aug 2, 1995 Accession Aug 2, 1995 Accession
  Trinidad and Tobago Dec 10, 1982 Apr 25, 1986 Ratification Oct 10, 1994 Jul 28, 1995 Ratification
  Tunisia Dec 10, 1982 Apr 24, 1985 Ratification May 15, 1995 May 24, 2002 Ratification
  Tuvalu Dec 10, 1982 Dec 9, 2002 Ratification Dec 9, 2002 Accession
  Uganda   Dec 10, 1982 Nov 9, 1990 Ratification Aug 9, 1994 Jul 28, 1995 Ratification
  Ukraine Dec 10, 1982 Jul 26, 1999 Ratification Feb 28, 1995 Jul 26, 1999 Ratification
  United Kingdom Jul 25, 1997 Accession Jul 29, 1994 Jul 25, 1997 Ratification
  Uruguay Dec 10, 1982 Dec 10, 1992 Ratification Jul 29, 1994 Aug 7, 2007 Ratification
  Vanuatu Dec 10, 1982 Aug 10, 1999 Ratification Jul 29, 1994 Aug 10, 1999 Ratification
  Vietnam Dec 10, 1982 Jul 25, 1994 Ratification Apr 27, 2006 Accession
  Yemen Dec 10, 1982 Jul 21, 1987 Ratification as the People's Democratic Republic of Yemen.
Also signed by the Yemen Arab Republic on Dec. 10 1982
prior to Yemeni unification.[2]
Oct 13, 2014 Accession
  Zambia   Dec 10, 1982 Mar 7, 1983 Ratification Oct 13, 1994 Jul 28, 1995 Ratification
  Zimbabwe   Dec 10, 1982 Feb 24, 1993 Ratification Oct 28, 1994 Jul 28, 1995 Ratification

SignatoriesEdit

An additional 14 UN member states have signed the Convention but have not ratified it. One UN member state has signed the Agreement but has not ratified it.

State[2][3][4] Signed
Convention
Signed
Agreement
  Afghanistan   Mar 18, 1983
  Bhutan   Dec 10, 1982
  Burundi   Dec 10, 1982
  Cambodia Jul 1, 1983
  Central African Republic   Dec 4, 1984
  Colombia Dec 10, 1982
  El Salvador Dec 5, 1984
  Ethiopia   Dec 10, 1982
  Iran Dec 10, 1982
  North Korea Dec 10, 1982
  Libya Dec 3, 1984
  Liechtenstein   Nov 30, 1984
  Rwanda   Dec 10, 1982
  United Arab Emirates Dec 10, 1982
  United States Jul 29, 1994

Other statesEdit

There are 15 United Nations member and observer states which have neither signed nor acceded either the Convention or the Agreement:

United States positionEdit

Although the United States helped shape the Convention and its subsequent revisions,[5] and though it signed the 1994 Agreement on Implementation, it has not signed the Convention as it objected to Part XI of the Convention.[6][7]

In 1983 President Ronald Reagan, through Proclamation No. 5030, claimed a 200-mile exclusive economic zone. In December 1988 President Reagan, through Proclamation No. 5928, extended U.S. territorial waters from three nautical miles to twelve nautical miles for national security purposes. However a legal opinion from the Justice Department questioned the President's constitutional authority to extend sovereignty as Congress has the power to make laws concerning the territory belonging to the United States under the U.S. Constitution. In any event, Congress needs to make laws defining if the extended waters, including oil and mineral rights, are under State or Federal control.[8][9]

On 16 July 2012, the U.S. Senate had 34 Republican Senators who indicated their intention to vote against ratification of the Treaty if it came to a vote. Since at least 2/3 of the 100 member Senate (at least 67 Senators) are required to ratify a treaty, consideration of the treaty was deferred again.[10]

Some American commentators, including former Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld, have warned that ratification of the Law of the Sea Treaty might create a precedent with regard to resources of outer space.[11]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "The United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (A historical perspective)". United Nations Division for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea. Retrieved 30 April 2009.
  2. ^ a b c d "United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea". United Nations Treaty Series. Retrieved 2013-12-01.
  3. ^ a b c "Agreement relating to the implementation of Part XI of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea". United Nations Treaty Series. Retrieved 2015-04-02.
  4. ^ a b "Chronological lists of ratifications of, accessions and successions to the Convention and the related Agreements". United Nations Division for Ocean Affairs and the Law of the Sea. 8 January 2010. Retrieved 2010-02-24.
  5. ^ Documents on Global Issues, 1973-1976 Foreign Relations Series
  6. ^ Roger Rufe, President of the Ocean Conservancy. Statement before the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, October 21, 2003
  7. ^ V Bantz, 'La Question De I'Adhesion Par Les Etats-Unis a La Convention Des Nations Unies Sur Le Droit De La Mer' (2003) 8 Annuaire Du Droit De La Mer 9–54
  8. ^ Andrew Rosenthal (29 December 1988). "Reagan Extends Territorial Waters to 12 Miles". New York Times. Retrieved 23 July 2014.
  9. ^ Carol Elizabeth Remy (1992). "U.S. Territorial Sea Extension: Jurisdiction and International Environmental Protection". Fordham International Law Journal. 16 (4): 1208–1252. Retrieved 23 July 2014.
  10. ^ Johnson, Keith. "GOP Scuttles Law-of-Sea Treaty". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 17 July 2012.
  11. ^ Wong, Kristina. "Rumsfeld still opposes Law of Sea Treaty." The Washington Times, 14 June 2012.