List of Christopher Wren churches in London

Sir Christopher Wren was 33 years old and near the beginning of his career as an architect when the Great Fire of London in 1666 destroyed many of the city's public buildings, including 88 of its parish churches. Wren's office was commissioned to build 51 replacement churches and St Paul's Cathedral. Many of these buildings survive to this day; others have been substantially altered or rebuilt. Some others were completely or partially destroyed during the German Blitz of 1940–41; yet others were demolished for different reasons.

Churches in the City of LondonEdit

Many of Wren's churches were demolished as the population of the City of London declined in the 19th century and more were destroyed or damaged during the Blitz.

Survived in original formEdit

Image Name Location Date Listing Coordinates
  St Benet Paul's Wharf Queen Victoria Street, Queenhithe, City of London 1677–83 Grade I (1950) 51°30′42.01″N 0°5′57.38″W / 51.5116694°N 0.0992722°W / 51.5116694; -0.0992722
  St Clement Eastcheap Clement's Lane, Candlewick, City of London 1683–87 Grade I (1950) 51°30′40.77″N 0°5′12.81″W / 51.5113250°N 0.0868917°W / 51.5113250; -0.0868917
  St Edmund, King and Martyr Lombard Street, Langbourn, City of London 1670–79 Grade I (1950) 51°30′44.62″N 0°5′10.68″W / 51.5123944°N 0.0863000°W / 51.5123944; -0.0863000
  St James Garlickhythe Garlick Hill, Vintry, City of London 1676–83 Grade I (1950) 51°30′39.99″N 0°5′37.54″W / 51.5111083°N 0.0937611°W / 51.5111083; -0.0937611
  St Margaret Lothbury Lothbury, Coleman Street Ward and Broad Street Ward, City of London 1686–90 Grade I (1950) 51°30′52.91″N 0°5′19.92″W / 51.5146972°N 0.0888667°W / 51.5146972; -0.0888667
  St Margaret Pattens Eastcheap, Billingsgate, City of London 1684–87 Grade I (1950) 51°30′38.75″N 0°4′58.74″W / 51.5107639°N 0.0829833°W / 51.5107639; -0.0829833
  St Martin, Ludgate Ludgate Hill, Farringdon Within, City of London 1677–84 Grade I (1950) 51°30′50.55″N 0°6′6.99″W / 51.5140417°N 0.1019417°W / 51.5140417; -0.1019417
  St Mary Abchurch Abchurch Lane, Candlewick, City of London 1681–86 Grade I (1950) 51°30′42.02″N 0°5′18.05″W / 51.5116722°N 0.0883472°W / 51.5116722; -0.0883472
  St Mary Aldermary Queen Victoria Street, Cordwainer, City of London 1679–82 Grade I (1950) 51°30′46″N 0°05′36″W / 51.51278°N 0.09333°W / 51.51278; -0.09333
  St Michael's Cornhill Cornhill, Cornhill, City of London 1669–72 Grade I (1950) 51°30′47.50″N 0°5′7.68″W / 51.5131944°N 0.0854667°W / 51.5131944; -0.0854667
  St Paul's Cathedral St Paul's Churchyard, Castle Baynard, City of London 1675-1711 Grade I (1950) 51°30′49″N 0°05′53″W / 51.51361°N 0.09806°W / 51.51361; -0.09806
  St Peter upon Cornhill Cornhill, Cornhill, City of London 1677–84 Grade I (1950) 51°30′47.7″N 0°5′4.5″W / 51.513250°N 0.084583°W / 51.513250; -0.084583
  St Stephen Walbrook Walbrook, Walbrook, City of London 1672–79 Grade I (1950) 51°30′45.46″N 0°5′23.71″W / 51.5126278°N 0.0899194°W / 51.5126278; -0.0899194

Substantially altered before the BlitzEdit

Image Name Location Date Listing Comment Coordinates
  St Magnus-the-Martyr Lower Thames Street, Bridge, City of London 1671–87 Grade I (1950) altered after London Bridge was widened in 1762 51°30′33.41″N 0°5′10.81″W / 51.5092806°N 0.0863361°W / 51.5092806; -0.0863361
  St Mary-at-Hill Lovat Lane, Billingsgate, City of London 1670–76 Grade I (1950) altered in 1787–88 and 1826–27 51°30′36″N 0°05′01″W / 51.510069°N 0.08374°W / 51.510069; -0.08374

Substantially rebuilt after the BlitzEdit

The Blitz in 1940–1941 damaged nearly all the churches in the City of London and many were nearly destroyed leaving just the outer walls and tower. However most of them were rebuilt to Wren's original design.

Image Name Location Date Listing Comment Coordinates
  St Andrew-by-the-Wardrobe Queen Victoria Street, Castle Baynard, City of London 1685–95 Grade I (1950) rededicated in 1961 51°30′44.44″N 0°6′4.89″W / 51.5123444°N 0.1013583°W / 51.5123444; -0.1013583
  St Andrew, Holborn Holborn Viaduct, Farringdon Without, City of London 1686–87 Grade I (1950) re-opened in 1961 51°31′2.10″N 0°6′24.14″W / 51.5172500°N 0.1067056°W / 51.5172500; -0.1067056
  St Anne and St Agnes Gresham Street, Aldersgate, City of London 1676–87 Grade I (1950) rededicated in 1966 51°30′59″N 0°5′47″W / 51.51639°N 0.09639°W / 51.51639; -0.09639
  St Bride's Church Fleet Street, Castle Baynard, City of London 1670–84 Grade I (1950) rededicated in 1957 51°30′50″N 0°6′21″W / 51.51389°N 0.10583°W / 51.51389; -0.10583
  St Lawrence Jewry Gresham Street, Cheap, City of London 1670–86 Grade I (1950) restored in 1957 51°30′55″N 0°05′33″W / 51.5152°N 0.0925°W / 51.5152; -0.0925
  St Mary-le-Bow Cheapside, Cordwainer, City of London 1670–83 Grade I (1950) reconsecrated in 1964 51°30′50″N 0°05′37″W / 51.51389°N 0.09361°W / 51.51389; -0.09361
  St Michael Paternoster Royal College Hill, Dowgate, City of London 1686–94 Grade I (1950) restored in 1966–8 51°30′40.22″N 0°5′31.76″W / 51.5111722°N 0.0921556°W / 51.5111722; -0.0921556
  St Nicholas Cole Abbey Queen Victoria Street, Bread Street Ward, City of London 1671–81 Grade I (1950) reconsecrated in 1962 51°30′43″N 0°5′48″W / 51.51194°N 0.09667°W / 51.51194; -0.09667
  St Vedast Foster Lane Foster Lane, Cheap, City of London 1670–97 Grade I (1950) restored by 1962 51°30′53.56″N 0°5′46.08″W / 51.5148778°N 0.0961333°W / 51.5148778; -0.0961333

Tower remainingEdit

These churches were destroyed in the Blitz or demolished in the 19th century. Only their towers remained with perhaps a short section of the outer wall. They are no longer working churches.

Image Name Location Date Listing Comment Coordinates
  St Mary Somerset Upper Thames Street, Queenhithe, City of London 1686–94 Grade I (1950) Body of the church demolished in 1871. Tower surrounded by small garden 51°30′40.92″N 0°5′48.80″W / 51.5113667°N 0.0968889°W / 51.5113667; -0.0968889
  St Olave Old Jewry Ironmonger Lane, Walbrook, City of London 1670–79 Grade I (1950) Body of the church was demolished in 1887. Tower is part of an office building. 51°30′52.15″N 0°5′28.70″W / 51.5144861°N 0.0913056°W / 51.5144861; -0.0913056
  oChrist Church Greyfriars Newgate Street, Farringdon Within, City of London 1677–91 Grade I (1950) Destroyed in the Blitz. The ruins are a public garden, the tower is private residence 51°30′56.94″N 0°5′56.93″W / 51.5158167°N 0.0991472°W / 51.5158167; -0.0991472
  St Alban's, Wood Street Wood Street, Bassishaw, City of London 1682–87 Grade II (1950) Destroyed in the Blitz. The tower is private dwelling 51°30′59.69″N 0°5′38.95″W / 51.5165806°N 0.0941528°W / 51.5165806; -0.0941528
  St Augustine Watling Street Watling Street, Bread Street Ward, City of London 1680–87 Grade I (1950) Destroyed in the Blitz. Tower part of St Paul's Cathedral Choir School 51°30′48.52″N 00°05′49.00″W / 51.5134778°N 0.0969444°W / 51.5134778; -0.0969444
  St Dunstan-in-the-East St Dunstan's Hill, Billingsgate, City of London 1698 Grade I (1950) Rebuilt in 1817–21, but destroyed in the Blitz. Ruins are a public garden 51°30′34.82″N 0°4′57.80″W / 51.5096722°N 0.0827222°W / 51.5096722; -0.0827222

Stones re-usedEdit

Image Name Location Date Listing Comment Coordinates
  All Hallows Lombard Street Lombard Street, Langbourn, City of London 1686–94 never listed Demolished in 1939, with the tower and interior fittings moved to All Hallows Twickenham 51°30′39.09″N 0°5′5.84″W / 51.5108583°N 0.0849556°W / 51.5108583; -0.0849556
  St Mary Aldermanbury Aldermanbury, Bassishaw, City of London 1670–74 Grade II (1972) Ruined in 1940, and the stones transported to Fulton, Missouri in 1964. Rebuilt as a memorial to Sir Winston Churchill 51°30′59.34″N 0°5′35.06″W / 51.5164833°N 0.0930722°W / 51.5164833; -0.0930722

Demolished due to the Union of Benefices Act (chronological order)Edit

The population of the City of London declined sharply in the 19th century, and the Union of Benefices Act 1860 reduced the number of parish churches. The surplus churches were demolished.

Image Name Location Date Comment Coordinates
  St Benet Gracechurch Gracechurch Street, Bridge, City of London 1681–87 demolished in 1868 51°30′42″N 0°5′6″W / 51.51167°N 0.08500°W / 51.51167; -0.08500
  St Mildred, Poultry Poultry, Cheap, City of London 1670–77 demolished in 1872 51°30′49″N 0°5′24″W / 51.51361°N 0.09000°W / 51.51361; -0.09000
  St Antholin, Budge Row Watling Street, Cordwainer, City of London 1678–84 demolished in 1875 51°30′45″N 0°05′31″W / 51.51250°N 0.09194°W / 51.51250; -0.09194
  St Michael Queenhithe Upper Thames Street, Queenhithe, City of London 1676–86 demolished in 1876 51°30′40″N 0°5′42″W / 51.51111°N 0.09500°W / 51.51111; -0.09500
  All Hallows Bread Street Bread Street, Bread Street Ward, City of London 1681–98 demolished in 1878 51°30′47″N 0°05′42″W / 51.5131°N 0.0951°W / 51.5131; -0.0951
  St Dionis Backchurch Fenchurch Street, Langbourn, City of London 1670–77 demolished in 1878 51°30′43″N 0°5′2″W / 51.51194°N 0.08389°W / 51.51194; -0.08389
  St Matthew Friday Street Friday Street, Bread Street Ward, City of London 1682–85 demolished in 1885 51°30′49″N 0°5′44″W / 51.51361°N 0.09556°W / 51.51361; -0.09556
  St Mary Magdalen Old Fish Street Old Change, Castle Baynard, City of London 1683–87 demolished in 1893 51°30′45″N 0°5′51″W / 51.51250°N 0.09750°W / 51.51250; -0.09750
  All-Hallows-the-Great Upper Thames Street, Dowgate, City of London 1677–84 demolished in 1894 51°30′36″N 0°05′25″W / 51.5100°N 0.0902°W / 51.5100; -0.0902
  St Michael Wood Street Wood Street, Cripplegate, City of London 1670–75 demolished in 1897 51°30′56″N 0°5′41.5″W / 51.51556°N 0.094861°W / 51.51556; -0.094861

Demolished for other reasons (chronological order)Edit

Image Name Location Date Demolition Reason Coordinates
  St Christopher le Stocks Threadneedle Street, Broad Street Ward, City of London 1670–71 demolished in 1782 to provide space for the extension of the Bank of England 51°30′51″N 0°05′19″W / 51.5141°N 0.0886°W / 51.5141; -0.0886
  St Michael, Crooked Lane Miles's Lane, Candlewick, City of London 1687 demolished in 1831 wider approaches were needed for the rebuilt London Bridge 51°30′39″N 0°05′14″W / 51.51070°N 0.087280°W / 51.51070; -0.087280
  St Bartholomew-by-the-Exchange Bartholomew Lane, Broad Street Ward, City of London 1675–83 demolished in 1840 to provide space for the widening of Threadneedle Street 51°30′50″N 0°05′14″W / 51.51376°N 0.0873°W / 51.51376; -0.0873
  St Benet Fink Threadneedle Street, Broad Street Ward, City of London 1670–75 demolished between 1841 and 1846 to improve the site of the Royal Exchange 51°30′50″N 0°5′10″W / 51.51389°N 0.08611°W / 51.51389; -0.08611
  St Michael Bassishaw Basinghall Street, Bassishaw, City of London 1675–79 demolished in 1900 judged structurally unsafe in 1892 51°31′0.1″N 0°5′30″W / 51.516694°N 0.09167°W / 51.516694; -0.09167
  St George Botolph Lane Botolph Lane, Billingsgate, City of London 1671–76 demolished in 1904 judged structurally unsafe and closed 1901 51°30′38″N 0°5′7″W / 51.51056°N 0.08528°W / 51.51056; -0.08528

Destroyed in the BlitzEdit

These churches were destroyed in the Blitz and their ruins demolished afterwards.

Image Name Location Date Demolition Coordinates
  St Stephen Coleman Street Coleman Street, Coleman Street Ward, City of London 1677 1940 51°30′56″N 0°05′25″W / 51.5155°N 0.0904°W / 51.5155; -0.0904
  St Mildred, Bread Street Bread Street, Bread Street Ward, City of London 1677–83 1941 51°30′44″N 0°05′43″W / 51.5123°N 0.0952°W / 51.5123; -0.0952
  St Swithin, London Stone Cannon Street, Walbrook, City of London 1678 1962 51°30′42″N 0°5′22″W / 51.51167°N 0.08944°W / 51.51167; -0.08944

Interior refurbished by Christopher WrenEdit

Image Name Location Date Listing Comment Coordinates
  Temple Church Fleet Street, Farringdon Without, City of London 1682–83 Grade I (1950) During the restoration after the Blitz Wren's wooden altar was discovered in a museum and was restored to its original position 51°30′47.52″N 0°06′37.44″W / 51.5132000°N 0.1104000°W / 51.5132000; -0.1104000

Churches built outside the City of LondonEdit

These churches were outside the area of the Great Fire of London.

Image Name Location Date Listing Comment Coordinates
  St Anne's Church, Soho Dean Street, Soho, City of Westminster 1677–85 Grade II (1958) The body of the church by Wren and William Talman was destroyed in the Blitz and later totally demolished; the preserved tower was built by S.P. Cockerell in 1801–03 51°30′45″N 0°07′56″W / 51.5124°N 0.1323°W / 51.5124; -0.1323
  St Clement Danes The Strand, City of Westminster 1680–82 Grade I (1958) Destroyed in 1941; reconsecrated in 1958 after the Blitz. 51°30′47″N 0°06′50″W / 51.513107°N 0.113898°W / 51.513107; -0.113898
  St James's Church, Piccadilly Piccadilly, St James's, City of Westminster 1676–84 Grade I (1958) Destroyed in 1940; restored in 1947–54 after the Blitz 51°30′31″N 0°8′12″W / 51.50861°N 0.13667°W / 51.50861; -0.13667
  Chapel of the Royal Hospital Chelsea Royal Hospital Road, Chelsea, Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea 1682–87 Grade I (1969) Wren designed the rest of the Hospital, as well. 51°29′11″N 0°9′28″W / 51.48639°N 0.15778°W / 51.48639; -0.15778

See alsoEdit

BibliographyEdit

  • Betjeman, John (1992) [1967], Sovereign City of London Churches, Andover: Pitkin, ISBN 978-0-85372-565-7
  • Godwin, George (1839), Churches of London, Vols.1–2, C. Tilt
  • Huelin, G (1996), Vanished Churches of the City of London, London: Guildhall Library Publications, ISBN 978-0-900422-42-3
  • Reynolds, H (1922), The Churches of the City of London, London: The Bodley Head Limited

External linksEdit