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Learning sciences (LS) is an interdisciplinary field that works to further scientific, humanistic and critical theoretical understanding of learning as well as to engage in the design and implementation of learning innovations, and the improvement of instructional methodologies. Research in the learning sciences traditionally focuses on cognitive-psychological, social-psychological, cultural-psychological and critical theoretical foundations of human learning, as well as on the design of learning environments. Major contributing fields include cognitive science, computer science, educational psychology, anthropology, and applied linguistics. Over the past decade, researchers have also expanded their focus to the design of curricula, informal learning environments, instructional methods, and policy innovations.
As an emerging discipline, the learning sciences are still in the process of defining itself. Accordingly, the identity of the field is multifaceted, and varies from institution to institution. However, the International Society of the Learning Sciences (ISLS) summarizes the field as follows: "Researchers in the interdisciplinary field of learning sciences, born during the 1990s, study learning as it happens in real-world situations and how to better facilitate learning in designed environments – in school, online, in the workplace, at home, and in informal environments. Learning sciences research may be guided by constructivist, social-constructivist, socio-cognitive, and socio-cultural theories of learning." ISLS has a large worldwide membership, is affiliated with two international journals: Journal of the Learning Sciences, and International Journal of Computer Supported Collaborative Learning, and sponsors the biennial Computer Supported Collaborative Learning conference and International Conference of the Learning Sciences on alternate years.
Although controlled experimental studies and rigorous qualitative research have long been employed in learning sciences, LS researchers often use design-based research methods. Interventions are conceptualized and then implemented in natural settings in order to test the ecological validity of dominant theory and to develop new theories and frameworks for conceptualizing learning, instruction, design processes, and educational reform. LS research strives to generate principles of practice beyond the particular features of an educational innovation in order to solve real educational problems, giving LS its interventionist character.
Several significant events have contributed to the international development of learning sciences. Perhaps the earliest history can be traced back to the cognitive revolution.
In the United States, an important effort to create a graduate program in learning sciences took place in 1983 when Jan Hawkins and Roy Pea proposed a joint program between Bank Street College and The New School for Social Research. Called "Psychology, Education, and Technology" (PET), the program had a planning grant supported by the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation. In the end the program would have required new faculty, though, and the institutions involved never established such a program. Roger Schank's arrival at Northwestern University in 1988 helped start the Institute for Learning Sciences. In 1991, Northwestern initiated the first learning sciences doctoral program, designed by and launched by Roy Pea as its first director. The program began accepting students in 1992, and after Pea became dean the program directorship was taken over by Brian Reiser. Since that time, a number of other high-quality graduate programs in learning sciences began to appear around the world, and the field is continuing to be recognized as an innovative and influential area for education research and design.
The Journal of the Learning Sciences was first published in 1991, with Janet Kolodner as founding editor. Yasmin Kafai and Cindy Hmelo-Silver took over as editors in 2009, and then Iris Tabak and Joshua Radinsky took over as editors in 2013. The International Journal of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning was established as a separate journal in 2006, edited by Gerry Stahl and Freiderich Hesse. These journals, while relatively new in the field of education research, rapidly escalated and continue to place in upper ranks of the Educational Research section of the Social Sciences Citation Index impact factor rankings.
The Institute for the Learning Sciences hosted the first International Conference for the Learning Sciences (ICLS) in August 1991 at Northwestern University (edited by Lawrence Birnbaum, and published by the AACE but no longer available). The first biennial meeting of the ICLS also took place at Northwestern University, in 1994. The International Society of the Learning Sciences] was established in 2002.
By integrating multiple fields, learning sciences extends beyond other closely related fields in distinguishable ways. For example, learning sciences extends beyond psychology, in that it also accounts for, as well as contributes to computational, sociological and anthropological approaches to the study of learning. Similarly, learning sciences draws inspiration from cognitive science, and is regarded as a branch of cognitive science; however, it gives particular attention to improving education through the study, modification, and creation of new technologies and learning environments, and various interacting and emergent factors that potentially influence the learning of humans.
Many learning sciences researchers employ design-based research methodology. The growing acceptance of design-based research methodology as a means for study is often viewed as a significant factor distinguishing learning sciences from many of the fields that contribute to it. By including design-based research within its methodological toolkit, learning sciences qualifies as a "design science", with characteristics in common with other design sciences that employ design science such as engineering and computer science. Learning sciences is also considered by some as having some degree of overlap with instructional design, although historically the two communities have come about in different ways and at times emphasized different programs of research, as described in a special issue of the journal Educational Technology in 2004.
Design-based research is by no means the only research methodology used in the field. Many other methodologies—including computational modeling, experimental and quasi-experimental research, and non-interventionist ethnographic-style qualitative research methodologies—have long been and continue to be employed in learning sciences.
- Artificial intelligence – Intelligence demonstrated by machines
- Cognitive psychology – Subdiscipline of psychology
- Cognitive science – Interdisciplinary scientific study of the mind and its processes
- Computer-supported collaborative learning
- Education sciences
- Educational psychology – Branch of psychology concerned with the scientific study of human learning
- Educational technology – Use of technology in education to improve learning and teaching
- Evidence-based education – Use of empirical evidence to make policy and practice decisions in education
- Malleability of intelligence
- Pea, 2016
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- Carr-Chellman, A. & Hoadley, C. (Eds.) Learning sciences and instructional systems: Beginning the dialogue [Special issue]. (2004). Educational Technology, 44(3).
- Fischer, F., Hmelo-Silver, C. E., Goldman, S. R., & Reimann, P. (Eds.)(2018). International handbook of the learning sciences. New York: Routledge.
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- Pea, R. (2016). The prehistory of the learning sciences. In Evans, M. A., Packer, M. P. (Eds.) Reflections on the learning sciences (pp. 32-58). New York: Cambridge University Press.
- Sawyer, R. K. (2006). The Cambridge handbook of the learning sciences (first edition). New York: Cambridge University Press.
- Sawyer, R. K. (2014). The Cambridge handbook of the learning sciences (second edition). New York: Cambridge University Press.
- Sfard, A. (1998). On two metaphors for learning and the dangers of choosing just one. Educational Researcher, 27(2), 4-13.
- Stahl, G., Koschmann, T., Suthers, D. (2006). Computer-supported collaborative learning: An historical perspective. In R. K. Sawyer (ed.) The Cambridge Handbook of the Learning Sciences (first edition) (pp. 79–96), New York: Cambridge University Press.
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Associations and journalsEdit
- Cognition and Instruction
- Instructional Science, An International Journal of the Learning Sciences
- International Society of the Learning Sciences
- The Journal of the Learning Sciences
- The International Journal of Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning
- Network of Academic Programs in the Learning Sciences
Major research centersEdit
- Institute for Application of Learning Science and Educational Technology (ALSET), National University of Singapore
- Institute of Learning Sciences and Higher Education, ETH Zurich, Switzerland
- Carnegie Mellon University
- Center for Research on Learning and Technology Indiana University
- CoCo - Centre for Computer Supported-learning and Cognition, The University of Sydney
- CREATE - Consortium for Research and Evaluation of Advanced Technologies in Education, New York University
- LinCS - The Linnaeus Centre for Research on Learning, Interaction and Mediated Communication in Contemporary Society, The University of Gothenburg
- Center for Learning and Knowledge Technologies , CeLeKT, Växjö University
- Centre for Learning Sciences and Technologies, Open University of the Netherlands CELSTEC
- Learning Research and Development Center - University of Pittsburgh
- Learning Sciences Research Institute - University of Illinois at Chicago
- Learning Sciences Research Institute - University of Nottingham, UK
- LIFE (Learning in Informal and Formal Environments) Science of Learning Center
- Learning Sciences Lab, National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore
- Munich Center of the Learning Sciences (MCLS), Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich, Germany
- Pittsburgh Science of Learning Center
- Science of Learning Center on Visual Language and Visual Learning (VL2)
- Science of Learning Research Centre (A Special Research Initiative of the Australian Research Council)
- Spatial Intelligence and Learning Center (SILC)
- Educational Science and Technology, University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands
- The Learning Technologies Research Group, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, Germany
- Copernicus Science Center in Warsaw, Poland.
Graduate programs (alphabetical order)Edit
- Arizona State University (Mary Lou Fulton Teachers College)
- Carnegie Mellon University
- Clemson University
- ETH Zurich (Institute of Learning Sciences and Higher Education)
- Indiana University School of Education, Bloomington Indiana
- Ludwig Maximilians University, Munich Center of the Learning Sciences, Munich, Germany
- New York University
- Northwestern University (School of Education and Social Policy)
- Penn State University (College of Education)
- Rutgers Graduate School of Education
- Stanford University (Graduate School of Education)
- University at Albany, SUNY Ph.D. in Learning Sciences and Technology as a program area
- University of Illinois at Chicago (Learning Sciences Research Institute)
- University of Calgary - Werklund School of Education
- University of California, Berkeley — Graduate School of Education
- University of New Mexico
- University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
- University of Nottingham
- University of Sydney
- University of Washington - College of Education
- M.Ed. in Learning Sciences and Human Development
- Ph.D. in Learning Sciences and Human Development
- University of Wisconsin, Madison - School of Education
- Utah State University - Department of Instructional Technology & Learning Sciences