Dzogchen (Wylie: rdzogs chen, "Great Perfection" or "Great Completion"), also known as atiyoga, is a tradition of teachings in Indo-Tibetan Buddhism aimed at discovering and continuing in the natural primordial state of sentient beings.[1] One's primordial ground (ghzi, "basis") is said have the qualities of purity (i.e. emptiness), spontaneity (lhun grub, associated with luminous clarity) and compassion (thugs rje). The goal of Dzogchen is knowledge of this basis, this knowledge is called rigpa. There are numerous spiritual practices taught in the various Dzogchen systems for awakening rigpa. Dzogchen developed in the Tibetan Empire period and the Era of Fragmentation (9-11th centuries) and continues to be practiced today both in Tibet and around the world. It is a central teaching of the Yundrung Bon tradition as well as in the Nyingma school of Tibetan Buddhism.[quote 1] In these traditions, Dzogchen is the highest and most definitive path of the nine vehicles to liberation.[2] Dzogchen is also practiced (to a lesser extent) in other Tibetan Buddhist schools, such as the Kagyu and the Gelug school.

Tibetan name
Tibetan རྫོགས་ཆེན་
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese大究竟、
Simplified Chinese大究竟、


Vajrasattva in yab-yum, which represents the primordial union of wisdom and compassion. The male figure is usually linked to compassion and skillful means, while the female partner relates to insight.

Dzogchen is composed of two terms:[web 1]

  • rdzogs – perfection, completion
  • chen – great

The term initially referred to the "highest perfection" of deity visualisation, after the visualisation has been dissolved and one rests in the natural state of the innately luminous and pure mind.[3] In the 10th and 11th century, Dzogchen emerged as a separate tantric vehicle in the Nyingma tradition,[web 1] used synonymously with the Sanskrit term ati yoga (primordial yoga).[4]

According to van Schaik, in the 8th-century tantra Sarvabuddhasamāyoga

... there seems to be an association of Anuyoga with yogic bliss, and Atiyoga with a realization of the nature of reality via that bliss. This ties in with the three stages of deity yoga described in a work attributed to Padmasambhava: development (kye), perfection (dzog) and great perfection (dzogchen).[web 1]

According to the 14th Dalai Lama, the term dzogchen may be a rendering of the Sanskrit term mahāsandhi.[5]

According to Anyen Rinpoche, the true meaning is that the student must take the entire path as an interconnected entity of equal importance. Dzogchen is perfect because it is an all-inclusive totality that leads to middle way realization, in avoiding the two extremes of nihilism and eternalism. It classifies outer, inner and secret teachings, which are only separated by the cognitive construct of words and completely encompasses Tibetan Buddhist wisdom.[6] It can be as easy as taking Bodhicitta as the method, and failing this is missing an essential element to accomplishment.[7]

Origins and historyEdit

Traditional accountsEdit

Nyingma traditionEdit

Adi Buddha Samantabhadra.

The Nyingma school's ancient origins of the Dzogchen teaching is attributed to 12 primordial masters that were nirmanakaya buddhas that took forms in various realms. Each appeared to specific gatherings of beings and revealed certain teachings and doctrines.[8] The 12th primordial master is said to be Buddha Shakyamuni.[9]

Also according to the Nyingma tradition,[10] the primordial Buddha Samantabhadra taught Dzogchen to the Buddha Vajrasattva, who transmitted it to the first human lineage holder, the Indian Prahevajra or Garab Dorje (fl. 55 CE).[3][10] According to tradition, the Dzogchen teachings were brought to Tibet by Padmasambhava in the late 8th and early 9th centuries. He was aided by two Indian masters, Vimalamitra and Vairocana.[11] According to the Nyingma tradition, they transmitted the Dzogchen teachings in three distinct series, namely the Mind Series (sem-de), Space series (long-de), and Secret Instruction Series (men-ngak-de).[10] According to tradition, these teachings were concealed shortly afterward, during the 9th century, when the Tibetan empire disintegrated.[11] From the 10th century forward, innovations in the Nyingma tradition were largely introduced historically as revelations of these concealed scriptures, known as terma.[11]

Bon traditionEdit

In the fourteenth century, Loden Nyingpo revealed a terma containing the story of Tonpa Shenrab Miwoche.[12] According to this terma, Dzogchen originated with the founder of the Bon tradition, Tonpa Shenrab, who lived 18,000 years ago, ruling the kingdom of Tazik, which supposedly lay west of Tibet.[10] He transmitted these teachings to the region of Zhang-zhung, the far western part of the Tibetan cultural world.[10][11] The earliest Bon literature only exists in Tibetan manuscripts, the earliest of which can be dated to the 11th century.[13] The Bon tradition also has a threefold classification, namely Dzogchen, A-tri, and the "Zhang-zhung Aural Lineage (zhang-zhung nyen-gyu).[10]

Historical origins and developmentEdit

Tibetan Empire (7th–9th century)Edit

The written history of Tibet begins in the early 7th century, when the Tibetan kingdoms were united, and Tibet expanded throughout large parts of Central Asia.[14] Songtsen Gampo (reign ca.617-649/50) conquered the kingdom of Zhangzhung in western Tibet, dominated Nepal, and threatened the Chinese dominance in strategically important areas of the Silk Road.[15] He is also credited with the adoption of a writing system, the establishment of a legal code, and the introduction of Buddhism, though it probably only played a minor role.[15] King Trisong Detsen, or Tri Songdetsen, (742-ca.797) embraced Buddhism as a national spiritual practice, relocated Indian masters to Tibet, and developed the Tibetan alphabet for translation of Sanskrit texts. Certain numbers of military forces were commanded to become monks, but some sources maintain the martial traditions of the Tibetan empire continued.[15] The Tibetans controlled Dunhuang, a major Buddhist center, from the 780s until the mid-ninth century.[16] Halfway through the 9th century the Tibetan empire collapsed.[17] Royal patronage of Buddhism was lost, leading to a decline of Buddhism in Tibet,[17][18] only to recover with the renaissance of Tibetan culture occurring from the late 10th century to the early 12th century,[13] known as the later dissemination of Buddhism.[13]

Origins (8th–10th century)Edit

The terms atiyoga (as a higher practice than Tantra) and dzogchen do appear in 8th and 9th century Indian tantric texts, though they do not refer to a separate vehicle (yana) in these texts.[13][10] There is no independent attestation of the existence of any separate traditions or lineages under the name of Dzogchen outside of Tibet,[13] and it may be a unique Tibetan teaching,[10][3] drawing on multiple influences, including both native Tibetan non-Buddhist beliefs and Chinese and Indian Buddhist teachings.[3] There are two main interpretations of the relationship between Dzogchen and Tantric Practices among modern academics:

  • that early Dzogchen represented a distinct tradition separate from tantric Mahāyoga (Germano)
  • that early Dzogchen was not a separate tradition and always developed within tantric Mahāyoga (van Schaik)
Distinct movementEdit

The idea that Dzogchen was a distinct movement was proposed by Samten Karmay in his study The Great Perfection. Samten proposed that Dzogchen was a "new philosophy" based on the doctrines of “Primal Spontaneity” (ye nas lhun gyis grub pa) and “Primeval Purity” (kadag) that developed between the 9th and 10th centuries. He notes that Chan Buddhism played a part in the development of early Dzogchen literature. He also explains how early Dzogchen had a close connection to tantric Mahāyoga practices and doctrines, but saw itself as outside of it.[19]

American Tibetologist David Germano has also defended a similar view of the early development of Dzogchen which emphasizes the difference between early Dzogchen and tantric yoga practice. He argues that early Dzogchen:

defined itself by the rhetorical rejection of such normative categories constituting tantric as well as non-tantric Indian Buddhism. This pristine state of affairs known as the "Mind Series" (sems sde) movement stemmed above all from Buddhist tantra as represented by the Mahayoga tantras, but was also influenced by other sources such as Chinese Chan and unknown indigenous elements.[20]

Germano points out that the early Dzogchen literature "is characterized by constant rhetorical denials of the validity and critical relevance" of mainstream Tantric practice. He points to "the ninth chapter of the Kun byed rgyal po, where normative tantric principles are negated under the rubric of the "ten facets of the enlightening mind's own being" (rang bzhin bcu).[21] Germano calls the early Dzogchen traditions "pristine Great Perfection" because it is marked "by the absence of presentations of detailed ritual and contemplative technique" as well as a lack of funerary, charnel ground and death imagery (which is a feature of later Dzogchen traditions that Germano terms 'Funerary Great Perfection'). Instead it "consists of aphoristic philosophical poetry with terse experiential descriptions lacking any detailed outline of practice."[22]

Germano further notes that the "early Great Perfection movements were rhetorically (at least) linked to rejection of more literal tantric interpretations (power sub-stances in general and body-fluids in particular, as well as graphic violence and sexuality), de-emphasis of the profusion of contemplative techniques, stress on direct experience rather than scholastically mediated knowledge, de-emphasis of ritual, mocking of syllogistic logic (despite its not infrequent use), and in general resistance to codifications of rules for any life-processes."[20]

Instead of the mainstream tantric techniques, Germano holds that in early Dzogchen practice:

the basis of contemplation appears to largely have been a type of extension of "calming" practices at times involving concentration exercises as preparatory techniques, but ultimately aiming at a technique free immer-sion in the bare immediacy of one's own deepest levels of awareness. Thus formless types of meditation were valorized over the complex fab-rication of visual images found in other tantric systems such as Mahayoga, though it may very well be that during these early phases it was largely practiced in conjunction with other types of more normative tantric practices of that type.[20]

In the following centuries, under the influence of the Sarma "New Translation" schools, the Dzogchen tradition continued to reinvent itself and give birth to new developments and Dzogchen systems.[20]

A form of tantric MahayogaEdit

According to Sam van Schaik, who studies early Dzogchen manuscripts from the Dunhuang caves, the Dzogchen texts are influenced by earlier Mahayana sources such as the Laṅkāvatāra Sūtra and Indian Buddhist Tantras with their teaching of emptiness and luminosity, which in Dzogchen texts are presented as 'ever-purity' (ka-dag) and 'spontaneous presence' (lhun-grub).[23] Sam van Schaik also notes that there is a discrepancy between the histories as presented by the traditions, and the picture that emerges from those manuscripts.[24][web 2]

According to van Schaik, the term atiyoga (which refers to Dzgochen) first appeared in the 8th century, in an Indian tantra called Sarvabuddhasamāyoga.[note 1] In this text, Anuyoga is the stage of yogic bliss, while Atiyoga is the stage of the realization of the "nature of reality."[web 2] According to van Schaik, this fits with the three stages of deity yoga as described in a work attributed to Padmasambhava: development (kye), perfection (dzog) and great perfection (dzogchen).[web 2] Atiyoga here is not a vehicle, but a stage or aspect of yogic practice.[web 2] In Tibetan sources, until the 10th century Atiyoga is characterized as a "mode" (tshul) or a "view" (lta ba), which is to be applied within deity yoga.[web 2]

According to van Schaik, the concept of rdzogs chen, "great perfection," first appeared as the culmination of the meditative practice of deity yoga[note 2] around the 8th century.[web 2] The term dzogchen was likely taken from the Guhyagarbhatantra. This tantra describes, as other tantras, how in the creation stage one generates a visualisation of a deity and its mandala. This is followed by the completion stage, in which one dissolves the deity and the mandala into oneself, merging oneself with the deity. In the Guhyagarbhatantra and some other tantras, there follows a stage called rdzogs chen, in which one rests in the natural state of the innately luminous and pure mind.[3]

In the 9th and 10th centuries deity yoga was contextualized in Dzogchen in terms of nonconceptuality, nonduality and the spontaneous presence of the enlightened state.[web 2] Some Dunhuang texts dated at the 10th century show the first signs of a developing nine vehicles system. Nevertheless, Anuyoga and Atiyoga are still regarded then as modes of Mahāyoga practice.[web 2] Only in the 11th century came Atiyoga to be treated as a separate vehicle, at least in the newly emerging Nyingma tradition.[web 2] Nevertheless, even in the 13th century (and later) the idea of Atiyoga as a vehicle was controversial in other Buddhist schools.[web 2] Van Schaik quotes Sakya Pandita as writing, in his Distinguishing the Three Vows:

If one understands this tradition properly,
Then the view of Atiyoga too
Is wisdom and not a vehicle.[web 1]

Early Dzogchen (9th–10th century)Edit

Nubchen Sanggye Yeshe (832-962)

Most of the early Dzogchen literature, which are claimed to be "translations", are original compositions from a much later date than the 8th century.[13] According to Germano, the Dzogchen tradition first appeared in the first half of the 9th century, with a series of short texts attributed to Indian saints.[13] According to van Schaik, the earliest manuscripts available are from Dunhuang.[25]

The most of important of these are the "Eighteen Great Scriptures" (Lung-chen bco-brgyad), which were referred to as "mind oriented" (sems phyogs), and later became known as "mind series" (sems de).[13] Another group of early texts are the "five early translations" (sNga-'gyur lnga). The focus of all these texts is the "mind of enlightenment" (byang-chub-kyi sems, Skt. bodhicitta). According to Sten Anspal, this "refers to the true nature of a person's consciousness, which is essentially identical to the state of Buddha. The texts explain how accessing and abiding in this pure and perfect state of consciousness fulfills and surpasses all the various practices and methods of other Buddhist approaches."[26]

The mind series reflect the teachings of early Dzogchen, which rejected all forms of practice, and asserted that striving for liberation would simply create more delusion.[3][13] One has simply to recognize the nature of one's own mind, which is naturally empty (stong pa), luminous ('od gsal ba), and pure.[3] According to Germano, its characteristic language, which is marked by naturalism and negation, is already pronounced in some Indian tantras.[13] Nevertheless, these texts are still inextricably bound up with tantric Mahayoga, with its visualisations of deities and mandals, and complex initiations.[13] Sam van Schaik notes that early Dzogchen texts are concerned with other key terms such as rigpa (gnosis, knowledge) which refers to non-dual and non-conceptual awareness, and spontaneous presence (lhun gyis grup pa).[27]

Christopher Hatchell explains that for early Dzogchen "all beings and all appearances are themselves the singular enlightened gnosis of the buddha All Good (Samantabhadra, Kuntu Zangpo)", and that it "also shows a disinterest in specifying any kind of structured practices or concepts via which one could connect with that gnosis. Rather, the tradition argues, there is nothing to do and nothing to strive for, so the reality of All Good will manifest in its imme­diacy just by relaxing and letting go."[28] This tendency can be seen in the short Dzogchen text "Cuckoo of Awareness":

In variety, there is no difference.

And in parts, a freedom from elaborations.

Things as things are, are not conceptual, but

The shining forth of appearances is All Good.

Since you are finished, cast off the sickness of effort!

Resting naturally, leave things [as they are]."[28]

This method of pointing the meditator to the direct experience of the true nature of reality that is immediately present was seen as superior to all other Buddhist methods, which were seen as intellectual frabrications. However, according to van Schaik, this rhetoric does not necessarily mean that practicioners of Dzogchen did not engage in these "lower" practices.[29]

During the 9th and 10th centuries these texts, which represent the dominant form of the tradition in the 9th and 10th centuries,[13] were gradually transformed into full-fledged tantras, culminating in the Kulayarāja Tantra (kun byed rgyal po, "The All-Creating King"[13]), in the last half of the 10th or the first half of the 11th century.[13] According to Germano, this tantra was historically perhaps the most important and widely quoted of all Dzogchen scriptures.[13]

The work of Nubchen Sangye Yeshe (9th century) is also an important source for the mind series traditions, particularly his Samten Migdrön.[30] By the 11th century these traditions developed in different systems such as the Kham, the Rong and the Nyang systems, which according to Ronald Davidson "are represented by texts surviving from the thirteenth to sixteenth centuries").[20] The Kham yogi Aro Yeshe Jungne (a ro ye shes 'byun gnas, 10th century) is particularly interesting, as he was said to have united the teachings of Dzogchen and the Chan lineage of Heshang Moheyan in his own Kham system known as the Mental Position system (A-ro lugs).[20]

By the 13th century, these traditions began to be slowly displaced "by the over-whelming success of more vision oriented movements such as the Seminal Heart."[30] However, elements of early Dzogchen continued to appear in later works, such as in Longchenpa's Trilogy of Natural Ease.[30]

The Renaissance period (11th–14th century)Edit

The Dzogchen tradition was completely transformed in the 11th century,[13] with the renaissance of Tibetan culture occurring from the late 10th century to the early 12th century, known as the later dissemination of Buddhism.[13] New techniques and doctrines were introduced from India, resulting in new schools of Tibetan Buddhism (the "New Translation" or "modernist" schools, i.e. Sarma).[3][13] These new Buddhist schools criticized many of the texts and practices of the "old ones" (Nyingmapas) as unauthentic, since many could not be traced to Indian sources.[31]

This challenge led to an explosion of new developments in Dzogchen doctrine and practice, with a growing emphasis on the new tantrism.[3] The older Bon and Nyingma traditions incorporated these new influences through the process of Treasure revelation (terma).[13] These new texts were considered to be hidden treasures buried by earlier figures such as Bairotsana, Songtsen Gampo, Vimalamitra and Padmasambhava that were then discovered by "treasure revealers" (tertons). These terma texts as well as the works of Nyingma Dzogchen commentators such as Rongzom were used to mount a scholarly defense of Dzogchen against the Sarma critiques.[31]

The Indian Budhist Yogini Tantras and other Anuttarayoga Tantras influenced the development of new Dzogchen texts in this period, especially the Instruction series. These Buddhist tantras made use of taboo imagery which was violent, horrific and erotic.[13] These influences are reflected in the rise of subtle body practices, new pantheons of wrathful and erotic Buddhas, increasingly antinomian rhetorics, and a focus on death-motifs within the new Dzogchen literature of this period.[32] These influences were incorporated in several movements such as the "Secret Cycle" (gsang skor),[33] "Ultra Pith" (yang tig),[33] "Brahmin's tradition" (bram ze'i lugs),[33] the "Space Class Series,"[3] and especially the "Instruction Class series" (Menngagde),[3] which culminated in the "Seminal Heart" (snying thig), which emerged in the late 11th and early 12th century.

The Space SeriesEdit
'Dzeng Dharmabodhi, (b.1052 - d.1168), a master of the Vajra Bridge

The series of Space (Longde), reflects the developments of the 11th–14th centuries and emphasizes "space" or "expanse" (klong).[3] According to Sten Anspal this class of texts "is difficult to define or characterize uniformly" and "were not unified into a single system". Because of this, it has been seen either as nearly identical with the earlier Semde (Mind) Series, or as "occupying doctrinally a position between Mind and lnstruction Section."[34]

According to Anspal, "Space" in these texts "is used to describe aspects in which the individual's true nature of mind is analogous to space. For example, space is present everywhere and no effort is needed to reach it; it cannot be transcended: it is immense. encompassing everything: it is devoid of characteristics and cannot be apprehended; it is without center or periphery; it is eternal and uncaused; there is no support in space and nothing to focus on: and so forth."[34] One of the central themes of these texts is the doctrine of "the Nine Spaces" (The Spaces of View, Behavior, Mandala, Initiation, Commitment, Activity, Accomplishment, Levels - Paths, and Fruition). Each of these practices which refer to features of Buddhist tantra, is said to be spacious and complete within one's true nature and thus gradualist and tantric practices are seen as unnecessary for those who understand their mind's true nature. So, for example, there is no need to create a mandala in one's mind to practice, since when one realizes the true nature of mind, all perceptions are the mandala. Likewise, there is no need to go through ritual initiation, since realizing one's nature is already an initiation. In this sense, Dzogchen is seen as transcending tantra.[34]

As noted by Anspal, some Space Series tantras like Equal to the End of Sky (Nam-mkha'i mtha'-dang mnyam-pa) "do not prescribe any particular techniques for the practitioner, such as physical postures or movements, structured meditative exercises, etc." In this sense, they are similar to Mind Series Tantras.[34]

Another tradition which is often grouped as part of the Space Series is the Vajra Bridge (rdo rje zam pa) tradition. These texts include numerous tantric rites connected with Heruka and three Dakinis. However, the commentaries on Vajra Bridge texts indicate that these tantric rituals are auxiliary practices that "are secondary to the main practice that is Great Perfection contemplation of the nature of mind, and which is not here practiced in the formalized context of Tantric sadhana."[34] A key figure in this tradition is 'Dzeng Dharmabodhi (1052-1168). His student, Kun-bzang rdo-rje, wrote numerous commentaries on Vajra Bridge.[34] The key Tantra of this tradition was entitled Secret Wisdom (Ye-shes gsang-ba). The following verse "was interpreted as the essential summary of the way of contemplation in the rDo-rje zam-pa":

With one's body in a secluded place, cut the attachment to external [sense data] and internal [conceptuality], [assume the posture endowed with] seven characteristics, (chos bdun), and balance the physical elements ('byung-ba) [of the body]. Without blocking the six sense aggregates, settle in mere ordinary awareness. Externally, the elements of the body are balanced; internally, inhalation and exhalation are absent. One arrives at the meaning of uncontrived naturalness. That which is called "human being" is Buddha. There is no Vajrasattva apart from oneself.[34]

In the Vajra Bridge tradition, contemplation of the true nature of mind, which was also referred to as "non-meditation", was introduced through the use of "four signs", which "are the experiences of non-conceptuality (mi-rtog-pa), clarity (gsal-ba), bliss (bde-ba) and the inseparability (dbyer mi-phyed-pa) of the first three as the fourth."[34] Some of the Vajra Bridge texts also make use of subtle body yogas of winds (vayus), though they are relatively simple and "effortless" (rtsol-bral) in comparison to the wind yogas of the completion stage found in the Sarma tantras, which are seen as inferior and coarse by the Vajra Bridge authors such as Kun-bzang rdo-rje.[34]

The Instruction SeriesEdit
Rigdzin Kumaradza, an important figure in the Seminal Heart tradition of the renaissance period.

The most influential texts of the instruction series are the so-called Seventeen Tantras (rgyud bcu bdun) and the two "seminal heart" collections, namely the Vima Nyingthig, (bi ma snying thig, "Seminal Heart of Vimalamitra") and the Khandro nyingthig (mkha' 'gro snying thig, "Seminal Heart of the Dakini").[3][35] The "Seminal Heart of Vimalamitra" is attributed to Vimalamitra, but was largely composed by their discoverers, in the 11th and 12th century, such as Zhangton Tashi Dorje (1097-1127).[36][37] The "Seminal Heart of the Dakini" was produced by Tsultrim Dorje (Tshul khrims rdo rje; 1291-1315/17).[36]

As noted by Hatchell, these texts present themselves as being taught by Buddhas like Samantabhadra and discuss numerous topics including: "cosmogony, the subtle body, speculation on the gnostic "ground" that underlies the world, buddha-nature, discussions of light-energy, practical techniques for calming the mind and producing visions, ritual empowerments, mandala construc­tion, signs of meditative accomplishment, postdeath states, attaining lib­eration after dying, funerary rituals, relics, prognostications for the time of death, subjugation rituals, strange recipes, and advice for dealing with zombies."[38] There is an emphasis on the importance of "funerary" topics such as death and the intermediate state (bardo) as well as visions of peaceful and fierce deities.[39] The Secret Instruction series texts saw themselves as the highest of all Dzogchen teachings, and they eventually overshadowed the other two classes.[3][30]

Hatchell explains the core worldview of the Seminal Heart texts as follows:

"all of the world’s beings, objects, and appearances are said to rise up from the “ground” (gzhi) of reality, which in its primordial state is a field of pure possibility, beyond differentiation. Awareness serves as the dynamic, knowing dimension of this ground and acts as a kind of luminous vibrancy that “lights up” (snang) from the ground, creating appearances through its “dynamic energy” (rtsal). In this view, all appearances are simply the “play” (rol pa) or the “radiation” (gdangs) of awareness, with some appearances (such as visionary ones) being awareness appearing in its unclouded intensity, while others (like ordinary objects) are only its dimmed derivations.

In the Great Perfection, awareness plays a primary role in beings’ enlightenment, as well as their wandering in samsara, the crucial issue separating these two being whether or not awareness is “recognized” (ngoshes pa) for what it is. That is, if beings and their environments are in fact constituted of the same awareness, beings can either recognize that, or they can mistakenly view the world as containing external objects, absolutely separate from themselves as perceiving subjects. “Recognition,” then, is the simple act that leads to enlightenment. “Nonrecognition,” on the other hand, is the Seminal Heart’s version of the basic ignorance that Buddhists say afflicts all beings, causing them to divide up the world into factions, split between a “self’ that needs to be protected and “others” who become objects of attachment or hatred."[40]

White letter A inside a thigle. Seeing thigles is part of the visionary practice of tögal, a unique feature of the Instruction Series.

The Secret Instruction division focuses on two aspects of spiritual practice: kadag trekchö, "the cutting through of primordial purity", and lhündrub tögal, "the direct crossing of spontaneous presence".[41] According to Hatchell, trekchö is a class of meditations that cultivate "a stable, vivid awareness with the goal of becoming attuned to the mind’s empti­ness and primordial purity." This is influenced by earlier teachings of the Mind series and on classic Buddhist calm-abiding (samatha, zhi gnas) and special-insight (vipasyana, lhag mthong).[42]

Tögal constitutes a unique feature of the Instruction tradition, which mainly deal with visionary meditations through practices such as dark-retreat and sky-gazing. The theory behind these practices is that, through yogic techniques, pure awareness can be induced to emerge through the eyes and appear as a series of visions. According to Hatchell, this is an opportunity "for the yogi to realize that the visionary appearances “out there” are none other than presencings of an internal awareness, and thus to undo the basic error of ignorance."[43]

The Vima Nyingthig categorized Dzogchen texts (and Atiyoga teaching in general) into three classes which later became the normative way of classifying Dzogchen literature:

  • The Mind Series (sems sde; the earliest teachings existing prior to the 11th century diffusion),[24]
  • The Space series (klong sde, 11th–14th centuries),
  • The Secret Instruction Series (man ngag sde, 11th–14th centuries).

During the 13th to 14th centuries, the Seminal Heart teachings became widely circulated by figures such as Melong Dorje, Rigdzin Kumaradza and the 3rd Karmapa Rangjung Dorje.[30] Over time, the Seminal Heart tradition became the dominant Dzogchen tradition and its textual divisions became standard.[44] According to Germano, "The core of the Seminal Heart's difference from earlier Great Perfection traditions can be summed up as a focus on the spontaneous dynamics (lhun grnb) of the Ground, a spontaneity which one visually experiences in mandalic images in death and death-in-life, i. e. contemplation."[30] The Seminal Heart innovations can be seen as fourfold according to Germano:[30]

  1. It articulates a deeply phenomenological and partially mythic overarching narrative about the origination and telos of the human world that serves to structure the entire tradition. This can be summed up by a primordial ground, its unfolding in the ground-presencing, its split into samsara and nirvana and its culmination in enlightenment.
  2. It directly introduces visionary practices into the heart of Great Perfection contemplation in a way intertwined with this evolutionary or developmental ethos. This is the "Direct transcendence" discourse.
  3. It incorporates a wide range of tantric types of practices as auxiliary and supporting praxis, which on the whole involve relatively simple techniques of visualization in contrast to the intricate mandalas of modernist focus.
  4. It injects a far greater range of tantric doctrines into its discourse, ranging from subtle body theory to the set of one hundred peaceful and wrathful deities based on the five Buddha families.
The Pith traditionsEdit
Nyangrel Nyima Ozer, 11th century terton of the Crown Pith cycle.[45]

There were also other Dzogchen traditions, such as the "pith" (ti) traditions (such as the Crown Pith, and Ultra Pith) which were contemporary with the development of the Seminal Heart canon. Some of these represented a re-assertion of earlier Dzogchen trends which were somewhat critical of the Seminal Heart systems.[39]

One of the most important of these conservative voices of the 12th century, Nyangrel Nyima Özer (Nyang ral nyi ma 'od zer, 1136–1204[note 3]) developed his "Crown Pith" (spyi ti) to reassert the older traditions in a new form.[44] According to Germano, this figure is "one of the main architects of the Padmasambhava mythos". Another important figure of the Crown Pith tradition is Guru Chowang (1212-1270).[39] Crown Pith tantras such as the Tantra of the Luminous Expanse, claim to be the "Peak of the Nine Vehicles".[49] As noted by Germano, a common motif of these works is that Crown Pith is superior to the Great Perfection or Transcendence Yoga, sometimes even stating that Crown Pith is a 10th Vehicle. This indicates that Nyima Özer was critical of other Dzogchen trends of his time.[39]

These writings, which were also presented as revelations from Padmasambhava, are marked by a relative absence of Yogini Tantra influence, and transcend the prescriptions of specific practices, as well as the rhetoric of violence, sexuality and transgression. Germano notes that "instead of the blood and violence of later Tantra, we find lyrical and elegant verses on light and darkness, purity and pollution, freedom and bondage, illusion and reality, plurality and unity, embodiment and mind."[39] According to Germano, in Crown Pith texts "the subordinated Transcendent Pith Great Perfection (ati dzokchen) is consistently associated more with the side of manifestation and vision and is described as retaining a degree of exertion, conceptuality, and focus on appearances, while the Crown Pith is presented as an uncompromising non-duality zeroed in on original purity (kadak).[39]

Longchenpa Rabjampa (14th century)Edit

A pivotal figure in the history of Dzogchen was Longchenpa Rabjampa (kLong chen rab 'byams pa, 1308–1364, possibly 1369). He revived the Seminal Heart teachings by bringing together the two main Seminal Heart cycles (the Vima and Khandro nyingthigs). To these he added two new collections authored by himself, the Lama Yangtig and the Khadro Yangtig, as well as a third collection, the Zabmo Yangtig. This compilation effort eventually led to all these cycles being passed down in one great combined cycle called the Nyingtig Yabzhi.[50]

In his highly influential corpus of commentaries include the Seven Treasuries (mdzod bdun), the "Trilogy of Natural Freedom" (rang grol skor gsum), and the Trilogy of Natural Ease (ngal gso skor gsum).[3][44] Longchenpa's works systematized the numerous Dzogchen teachings in a coherent sctructured form. He refined the terminology and interpretations of Dzogchen, and integrated the Seminal Heart teachings with broader Mahayana and Vajrayana literature.[44][20] With Longchenpa's highly influential synthesis, the Seminal Heart teachings came to dominate the Dzgochen discourse in the Nyingma school while earlier traditions became marginalized. Later Dzogchen cycles were all influenced by Longchenpa's corpus.[20]

Malcolm Smith notes that Longchenpa's Tshig don mdzod, the "Treasury of Subjects,"[web 3] was preceded by several other texts by other authors dealing with the same topics, such as "The Eleven Subjects of The Great Perfection"[note 4] by Nyi 'bum (12th century). This itself was derived from the eighth and final chapter of the commentary to The String of Pearls Tantra.[web 3] According to Smith, Nyi 'bum's "Eleven Subjects" provided the outline upon which Longchenpa's "Treasury of Subjects" was based, using the general sequence of citations, and even copying or reworking entire passages.[web 4]

Later developmentsEdit

Peaceful & Fierce Deities of the post-mortem intermediate state (bardo).

In subsequent centuries more additions followed, including the "Profound Dharma of Self-Liberation through the Intention of the Peaceful and Wrathful Ones"[51] (kar-gling zhi-khro)[note 5] by Karma Lingpa,[52] (1326–1386), popularly known as "Karma Lingpa's Peaceful and Wrathful Ones",[51] which includes the two texts of the bar-do thos-grol, the "Tibetan Book of the Dead".[53][note 6]

Other important termas are "The Penetrating Wisdom" (dgongs pa zang thal), revealed by Rinzin Gödem (rig 'dzin rgod ldem, 1337–1409);[44] and "The Nucleus of Ati's Profound Meaning" (rDzogs pa chen po a ti zab don snying po) by Terdak Lingpa (gter bdag gling pa, 1646–1714).[44]

However, the most influential of these later revelations are the works of Jigme Lingpa (1730–1798).[44] His Longchen Nyingthig (klong chen snying thig), "The Heart-essence of the Vast Expanse"[55] or "The Seminal Heart of the Great Matrix",[44] is supposed to be a terma from Padmasambhava.[3][44] According to Germano, this cycle "functioned to simplify much of kLong chen rab 'byams pa' s Seminal Heart systematization but also altered the fundamental structure of its literature and praxis 'by drawing upon normative (and transformed) deity visualization-oriented practices as found in Mahayoga cycles for its key structural framework."[20]

The Longchen Nyingthig is said to be the essence of the Vima Nyingthig and Khandro Nyingthig, the "Early Nyingthig,",[35] and has become known as the "later Nyingthig".[35] It is one of the most widely practiced teachings in the Nyingmapa school.[56] Patrul Rinpoche (1808–1887) wrote down Jigme Lingpa's pre-liminary practices into a book called The Words of My Perfect Teacher.[57]

The next major development in the history of Dzogchen is the Rime movement (non-sectarian or non-partisan movement) of the 19th century.[20] According to Germano, this period saw the continuation of a move towards more normative tantric doctrine and contemplation in Dzogchen. There was a rise in the production of scholastic and philosophical literature on Mahayana topics from the Dzogchen perspective, culminating in the works of Ju Mipham (1846-1912), who wrote numerous commentaries and texts on Buddhist Mahayana philosophy. There was also an increased focus on monastic institutions in Nyingma.[20]

In the early 20th century the first publications on Tibetan Buddhism appeared in the western world. An early publication on Dzogchen was the so-called "Tibetan Book of the Dead," edited by W.Y. Evans-Wentz, which became highly popular, but contains many mistakes in translation and interpretation.[54]

Dzogchen has been popularized and spread outside of Tibet by the Tibetan diaspora, starting with the Tibetan exile of 1959. Well-known teachers which have taught Dzogchen in the western world include 2nd Dudjom Rinpoche, Nyoshul Khenpo, Tulku Urgyen, Dilgo Khyentse, Namkhai Norbu, Chögyam Trungpa, Dzogchen Ponlop, and Mingyur Rinpoche. A few of these figures were also tertons (treasure revealers), such as Dudjom Rinpoche and Namkhai Norbu and thus revealed new termas. Some of these figures from the Tibetan diaspora also founded organizations for the preservation and practice of Dzogchen, such as Namkhai Norbu's Dzogchen Community.

Kagyu and GelugpaEdit

Dzogchen has also been taught and practiced in the Kagyu[note 7] lineage,[58] beginning with the Third Karmapa, Rangjung Dorje (1284–1339).[note 8]

The Drikung Kagyu also have a tradition of Dzogchen teachings, the yangzab dzogchen.[59]

Lozang Gyatso, 5th Dalai Lama (1617–1682), Thubten Gyatso, 13th Dalai Lama ( 1876–1933), and Tenzin Gyatso, 14th Dalai Lama (present), all Gelugpas, are also noted Dzogchen masters, although their adoption of the practice of Dzogchen has been a source of controversy among more conservative members of the Gelug tradition.[web 5]

Conceptual backgroundEdit

The metaphors of sky and spaciousness are often used to describe the nature of mind in Dzogchen.

Tibetan Buddhism developed five main schools. The Madhyamika philosophy obtained a central position in the Nyingma, Kagyu, Sakya and Gelugpa schools. The Jonang school, which until recently was thought to be extinct, developed a different interpretation of ultimate truth. Dzogchen texts use unique terminology to describe the Dzogchen view. Some of these terms deal with the different elements and features of the mind. The generic term for consciousness is shes pa, and includes the six sense consciousnesses. Different forms of shes pa include ye shes (Jñāna, 'pristine consciousness') and shes rab (prajñā, wisdom).[60] According to Sam van Schaik, two significant terms used in Dzogchen literature is the Ground (gzhi) and Gnosis (rig pa), which represent the "ontological and gnoseological aspects of the nirvanic state" respectively.[61] Dzogchen literature also describes nirvana as the "expanse" (klong or dbyings) or the "true expanse" (chos dbyings, Sanskrit: Dharmadhatu). The term Dharmakaya is also often associated with these terms in Dzogchen,[62] as explained by Tulku Urgyen:

Dharmakaya is like space. You cannot say there is any limit to space in any direction. No matter how far you go, you never reach a point where space stops and that is the end of space. Space is infinite in all directions; so is dharmakaya. Dharmakaya is all-pervasive and totally infinite, beyond any confines or limitations. This is so for the dharmakaya of all buddhas. There is no individual dharmakaya for each buddha, as there is no individual space for each country.[63]

According to Malcolm Smith, the Dzogchen view is also based on the Indian Buddhist Buddha-nature doctrine of the Tathāgatagarbha sūtras.[64] According to the 14th Dalai Lama the Ground is the Buddha-nature, the nature of mind which is emptiness.[65] According to Rinpoche Thrangu, Rangjung Dorje (1284–1339), the third Karmapa Lama (head of the Karma Kagyu) and Nyingma lineage holder, also stated that the Ground is Buddha-nature.[note 9] According to Rinpoche Thrangu, "whether one does Mahamudra or Dzogchen practice, buddha nature is the foundation from which both of these meditations develop."[67]


The gankyil symbolizes the inseparability of all of the groups of three in Dzogchen teaching, such as the Base, Path, and Fruit.[68]

A key concept in Dzogchen is the 'basis', 'ground' or 'primordial state' (Tibetan: gzhi, Sanskrit: sthana), also called the general ground (spyi gzhi) or the original ground (gdod ma'i gzhi). The basis is the original state "before realization produced buddhas and nonrealization produced sentient beings". It is atemporal and unchanging and yet it is "noetically potent", giving rise to mind, delusion and wisdom.[69] The basis is also associated with the term Dharmata.[70]

The basis has three qualities:[71][72]

  • Essence – purity, which refers to emptiness (shunyata, stong pa nyid)
  • Nature – Natural perfection (lhun grub), also translated "spontaneous presence",[73] which also refers to luminosity or clarity (gsal).
  • Compassion (karuṇā, thugs rje), the "immanent presence of the ground in all appearances".[74]

The text, "An Aspirational prayer for the Ground, Path and Result" defines the three aspects of the basis thus:[75]

Because its essence is empty, it is free from the limit of eternalism
Because its nature is luminous, it is free from the extreme of nihilism
Because its compassion is unobstructed, it is the ground of the manifold manifestations

Moreover, the basis is associated with the primordial or original Buddhahood, also called Samantabhadra, which is said to be beyond time itself and hence Buddhahood is not something to be gained, but an act of recognizing what is already immanent in all sentient beings.[76] Likewise, this view of the basis stems from the Indian Buddha-nature theory.[77] Other terms used to describe the basis include unobstructed (ma 'gags pa), universal (kun khyab) and omnipresent.[78]


Rigpa is often explained through the metaphor of a crystal or a crystal ball
Melong Dorje, wearing a Melong (mirror), which is a symbol of ka dag.

Rigpa (Sk: Vidya, "knowledge") is a central concept in Dzogchen which means "unconfused knowledge of the basis that is its own state".[79] It is "reflexively self-aware primordial wisdom,"[80] which is self-reflexively aware of itself as unbounded wholeness.[81][quote 2] The analogy given by Dzogchen masters is that one's true nature is like a mirror which reflects with complete openness, but is not affected by the reflections; or like a crystal ball that takes on the colour of the material on which it is placed without itself being changed. The knowledge that ensues from recognizing this mirror-like clarity (which cannot be found by searching nor identified)[82] is called rigpa.[83]

According to Alexander Berzin, there are three aspects of rigpa:[web 6]

  1. The essential nature of rigpa: primal purity (ka-dag). Rigpa is primordially without stains, both being self-void (rang-stong) and other-void (gzhan-stong);
  2. The influencing nature of rigpa: the manner in which rigpa influences others. Rigpa is responsiveness (thugs-rje, compassion). It responds effortlessly and spontaneously to others with compassion;
  3. The functional nature of rigpa: rigpa effortlessly and spontaneously establishes "appearances" (lhun-grub).

As Berzin notes, all of the good qualities (yon-tan) of a Buddha are already "are innate (lhan-skyes) to rigpa, which means that they arise simultaneously with each moment of rigpa, and primordial (gnyugs-ma), in the sense of having no beginning.[web 6]

Sam van Schaik translates rigpa as "gnosis" which he glosses as "a form of awareness aligned to the nirvanic state".[84] He notes that other definitions of rigpa include "free from elaborations" (srpos bral), "non conceptual" (rtog med) and "transcendent of the intellect" (blo 'das). It is also often paired with emptiness, as in the contraction rig stong (gnosis-emptiness).[85]

John W. Pettit notes that rigpa is seen as beyond affirmation and negation, acceptance and rejection, and therefore it is known as "natural" (ma bcos pa) and "effortless" (rtsol med) once recognized.[86] Because of this, Dzogchen is also known as the pinnacle and final destination of all paths.

Ma RigpaEdit

Ma Rigpa (avidyā) is the opposite of rigpa or knowledge. Ma rigpa is ignorance or unawareness, the failure to recognize the nature of the basis. An important theme in Dzogchen texts is explaining how ignorance arises from the basis or Dharmata, which is associated with ye shes or 'pristine consciousness'.[87] Automatically arising unawareness (lhan-skyes ma-rigpa) exists because the basis is seen having a natural cognitive potentiality and luminosity (gdangs), which is the ground for samsara and nirvana. When consciousness fails to recognize that all phenomena arise as the creativity (rtsal) of the nature of mind and misses its own luminescence or does not "recognize its own face", sentient beings arise instead of Buddhas. As explained by Tulku Urgyen:

In the case of an ignorant sentient being the mind is called empty cognizance suffused with ignorance (marigpa). The mind of all the Buddhas is called empty cognizance suffused with awareness (rigpa).[88]

According to Vimalamitra's Illuminating Lamp, delusion arises because sentient beings "lapse towards external mentally apprehended objects". This external grasping is then said to produce sentient beings out of dependent origination.[89] This dualistic conceptualizing process which leads to samsara is termed manas as well as "awareness moving away from the ground".[90]

Immanence and DistinctionEdit

The Garuda is used as a symbol of primordial nature, which is already completely perfect, since this mythological animal is said to be born fully grown.[91]

According to Sam van Schaik, there is a certain tension in Dzogchen thought (as in other forms of Buddhism) between the idea that samsara and nirvana are immanent within each other and yet are still different. In texts such as the Longchen Nyingtig for example, the basis and rigpa are presented as being "intrinsically innate to the individual mind".[92] The Great Perfection Tantra of the Expanse of Samantabhadra’s Wisdom states:

If you think that he who is called “the heart essence of all buddhas, the Primordial Lord, the noble Victorious One, Samantabhadra” is contained in a mindstream separate from the ocean-like realm of sentient beings, then this is a nihilistic view in which samsara and nirvana remain unconnected.[93]

Likewise, Longchenpa (14th century), writes in his Illuminating Sunlight:

Every type of experiential content belonging to samsara and nirvana has, as its very basis, a natural state that is a spontaneously present buddha—a dimension of purity and perfection, that is perfect by nature. This natural state is not created by a profound buddha nor by a clever sentient being. Independent of causality, causes did not produce it and conditions can not make it perish. This state is one of self-existing wakefulness, defying all that words can describe, in a way that also transcends the reach of the intellect and thoughts. It is within the nonarising vastness of such a basic natural state that all phenomena belonging to samsara and nirvana are, essentially and without any exception, a state of buddha—purity and perfection.[94]

This lack of difference between these two states, their non-dual (advaya) nature, corresponds with the idea that change from one to another doesn't happen due to an ordinary process of causation but is an instantaneous and perfect 'self-recognition' (rang ngo sprod) of what is already innately (lhan-skyes) there.[95] According to John W. Pettit, this idea has its roots in Indian texts such as Nagarjuna's Mulamadhyamakakarika, which states that samsara and nirvana are not separate and that there is no difference between the "doer", the "going" and the "going to" (i.e. the ground, path and fruit).[96]

In spite of this emphasis on immanence, Dzogchen texts do indicate a subtle difference between terms associated with delusion (kun gzhi or alaya, sems or mind) and terms associated with full enlightenment (dharmakaya and rigpa).[97] The Alaya and Ālayavijñāna are associated with karmic imprints (vasana) of the mind and with mental afflictions (klesa). The "alaya for habits" is the basis (gzhi) along with ignorance (marigpa) which includes all sorts of obscuring habits and grasping tendencies.[web 6]

These terms stem from Indian Yogacara texts, such as the Ratnagotravibhāga.[98]

Harmonisation with MadhyamakaEdit

Koppl notes that although later Nyingma authors such as Mipham attempted to harmonize the view of Dzogchen with Madhyamaka, the earlier Nyingma author Rongzom Chokyi Zangpo did not.[99][quote 3] Rongzom held that the views of sutra such as Madhyamaka were inferior to that of tantra.[100][quote 4] In contrast, the 14th Dalai Lama, in his book Dzogchen,[101] concludes that Madhyamaka and Dzogchen come down to the same point. The view of reality obtained through Madhyamaka philosophy and the Dzogchen view of Rigpa can be regarded as identical. With regard to the practice in these traditions, however, at the initial stages there do seem certain differences in practice and emphasis.

Teachings and practiceEdit

Dzogchen is a secret teaching emphasizing the rigpa view. It is a secret from those who are incapable of receiving it. The student can properly receive it with direct in-person realization under a guru's instruction. It is accessible to all; however, it is generally considered an advanced practice because safety from generating an incorrect view necessitates preliminary practices with a teacher's empowerment. [102]

Dzogchen teachings emphasize naturalness, spontaneity and simplicity.[11] Although Dzogchen is portrayed as being distinct from tantra, it has incorporated many concepts and practices from tantric Buddhism.[11] It embraces a widely varied array of traditions, that range from a systematic rejection of all tantric practices, to a full incorporation of tantric practices.[11]

Three principlesEdit

The "Seminal Heart of Vimalamitra" epitomized the Dzogchen teaching in three principles, known as the Three Statements of Garab Dorje (Tsik Sum Né Dek). They give in short the development a student has to undergo:

  1. Direct introduction to one's own nature (Tib. ngo rang thog tu sprod pa), namely rigpa;
  2. Not remaining in doubt concerning this unique state (Tib. thag gcig thog tu bcad pa);
  3. Continuing to remain in this state (Tib. gdeng grol thog tu bca' pa).

In subsequent centuries these teachings were expanded, most notably in the Longchen Nyingthig by Jigme Lingpa (1730–1798).[3] His systematisation is the most widely used Dzogchen-teaching nowadays.[3]

Structure of practiceEdit

Anthology of practicesEdit

The dzogchen teachings consist of vast anthologies of practices presented as preliminary and auxiliary contemplative techniques, including standard Buddhist meditation techniques and tantra practices which have been integrated into Dzogchen.[103]

Longchenpa, in "Finding Comfort and Ease in Meditation" (bsam gtan ngal gso), the second text of the Trilogy of Natural Ease (ngal gso skor gsum),[104] and its auto-commentary the Shing rta rnam dag,[105] uses the standard triad of meditative experiences (nyams) to structure the text and the practices: bliss (bde ba), radiance/clarity (gsal ba), and non-conceptuality (mi rtog pa).[104] This triad is also presented as preliminaries, main practice, and concluding phase.[105] The preliminaries are further divided into:

  • the general preliminaries on impermanence and renunciation of cyclic existence, which corresponds to the Therevada;
  • the special preliminaries on compassion and the engendering of compassionate motivation, which corresponds with the Mahayana;
  • the supreme preliminaries, consisting of the generation phase, perfection phase and Guru yoga.[105]

This systematisation contextualized the system in terms of Tibetan Buddhism, while simultaneously relegating these preliminaries to a lower status, while emphasizing their necessity.[105] Longchenpa couples meditation with Guru yoga in these preliminaries.[105]

The teachings based on the Longchen Nyingthig are divided into preliminary practices and main practices.[106] Alexander Berzin explicitly mentions meditative practices as a preliminary of the main practice.[web 6][107][108][57]

General overviewEdit

A general overview gives the following:

  • Preliminary practices:
    • Initial empowerment: according to Tsoknyi Rinpoche, Dzogchen practice starts with receiving empowerment;[109]
    • Ngondro, general or outer, and special or inner preliminary practices, which prepare one for the main practice;
  • Great Perfection practice:
    • Further empowerment: receiving an empowerment (dbang, initiation) and keeping the vows conferred at that time. This activates our Buddha-mind, by consciously generating a state of mind that is accompanied by understanding;
    • Supreme preliminary practices: Jigme Lingpa's ru shan and sbyong ba; practice of the three samadhis;[note 10]
    • Main practice, which consists of:[web 6][quote 5]
      • Trekchö, "break through",[web 6] recognising rigpa;
      • Tögal (thod rgal), "leap ahead",[web 6] spontaneous presence"[111][112] which is the stabilisation of rigpa and compassionate action.
    • Concluding phase

Preliminary practicesEdit

The Ngondro, preliminary practices, consist of outer preliminaries and inner preliminaries.[web 6]

Initial empowermentEdit

According to Tsoknyi Rinpoche, before one starts with the Dzogchen-practices empowerment is necessary. This plants the "seeds of realization" within the present body, speech and mind.[109] Empowerment "invests us with the ability to be liberated into the already present ground."[113] The practices bring the seeds to maturation, resulting in the qualities of enlightened body, speech and mind.[114]

General or outer preliminariesEdit

The outer preliminaries are as follows:[web 6]

  • appreciating our precious human rebirths;
  • contemplating death and impermanence;
  • contemplating the faults of samsara;
  • contemplating karmic cause and effect and the possibility of gaining liberation from it;
  • contemplating the benefits of liberation;
  • building and maintaining a good relation with a spiritual teacher;

Special or inner preliminariesEdit

The inner preliminaries are as follows:[web 6]

  • taking refuge;
  • cultivating bodhichitta and the "far-reaching attitudes" (Tib. phar-byin, Skt. paramita);
  • practicing Vajrasattva recitation, for purification of the gross obstacles;
  • practicing mandala offerings, in which we develop generosity and strengthen our enlightenment-building network of positive force;
  • making kusali offerings of chöd, in which we imagine cutting up and giving away our ordinary bodies;
  • practicing Guru Yoga, in which we recognize and focus on Buddha-nature in our spiritual mentors and in ourselves;

Great perfection practicesEdit


According to Berzin, receiving empowerment (dbang, initiation) and keeping the vows conferred at that time is a necessary step to move on to the main practice. This activates our Buddha-mind, by consciously generating a state of mind that is accompanied by understanding. Alexander Berzin further notes:[web 6]

  • "In Gelug, the conscious experience is some level of blissful awareness of voidness."
  • "In the non-Gelug systems, it is focus on Buddha-nature in our tantric masters and in us, with some level of understanding of Buddha-nature."
  • "In dzogchen, it is focus specifically on the basis three aspects of rigpa as Buddha-nature factors in our tantric masters and in us."

Supreme preliminary practicesEdit

With the influence of tantra, and the systematisations of Longchenpa, the main Dzogchen practices came to be preceded by preliminary (meditative) practices.[115]

In the text "Finding Comfort and Ease in the Nature of Mind" (sems nyid ngal gso), which is part of the Trilogy of Natural Ease (ngal gso skor gsum), Longchenpa arranges 141 contemplative practices, split into three sections: exoteric Buddhism (92), tantra (92), and the Great Perfection (27).[116] Most of these practices are "technique-free."[104] The typical Buddhist meditations are relegated to the preliminary phase, while the main meditative practices are typical "direct" approaches.[117]

Longchenpa includes the perfection phase techniques of channels, winds and nuclei into the main and concluding phases.[118] The "concluding phase" includes discussions of new contemplative techniques, which aid the practice of the main phase.[119]

The Great Perfection practices as described by Jigme Lingpa consist of preliminary practices, specific for the Great Perfection practice, and the main practice.[120]

Jigme Lingpa – ru shan and sbyong baEdit

Jigme Lingpa mentions two kinds of preliminary practices, 'khor 'das ru shan dbye ba,[note 11] "making a gap between samsara and nirvana,"[121][108] and sbyong ba.[121]

Ru shan is a series of visualisation and recitation exercises,[121] derived from the Seminal Heart tradition.[117] The name reflects the dualism of the distinctions between mind and insight, ālaya and dharmakāya.[121] Longchenpa places this practice in the "enhancement" (bogs dbyung) section of his concluding phase. It describes a practice "involving going to a solitary spot and acting out whatever comes to your mind."[117][note 12][quote 6]

Sbyong ba is a variety of teachings for training (sbyong ba) the body, speech and mind. The training of the body entails instructions for physical posture. The training of speech mainly entails recitation, especially of the syllable hūm. The training of the mind is a Madhyamaka-like analysis of the concept of the mind, to make clear that mind cannot arise from anywhere, reside anywhere,or go anywhere. They are in effect an establishment of emptiness by means of the intellect.[122]

Meditative practicesEdit

According to Alexander Berzin, after the preliminary practices follow meditative practices, in which practitioners work with the three aspects of rigpa.[web 6][note 13]

The three samadhis (ting-nge-’dzin gsum) are practiced, in which the practitioner works, in the imagination, with the three aspects of rigpa:

  1. "Basis samadhi" on the authentic nature (gzhi de-bzhin-nyid-kyi ting-nge-’dzin, de-ting): the meditator is absorbed in an approximation of rigpa’s primal purity. It is a state of open receptiveness (klong), which is the basis for being able to help others as a Buddha;
  2. "Path samadhi illuminating everywhere" (lam kun-snang-ba’i ting-nge-’dzin, snang-ting): being moved by compassion, the meditator is absorbed in an approximation of rigpa’s responsiveness;
  3. "Resultant samadhi on the cause" (‘bras-bu-rgyu’i-ting-nge-’dzin, rgyu-ting): the meditator is absorbed in the visualization of a seed-syllable, which brings the result of actually helping limited beings.
White Tibetan letter A

The Dzogchen meditation practices also include a series of exercises known as Semdzin (sems dzin),[123] which literally means "to hold the mind" or "to fix mind."[123] They include a whole range of methods, including fixation, breathing, and different body postures, all aiming to bring one into the state of contemplation.[124][note 14]

Main practiceEdit


The practice of Trekchö (khregs chod), "cutting through solidity",[110] reflects the earliest developments of Dzogchen, with its admonition against practice.[3][note 15] In this practice one first identifies, and then sustains recognition of, one's own innately pure, empty awareness.[127][128][quote 7] Students receive pointing-out instruction (sems khrid, ngos sprod) in which a teacher introduces the student to the nature of his or her mind.[3] According to Tsoknyi Rinpoche, these instructions are received after the preliminary practices, though there's also a tradition to give them before the preliminary practices.[131][quote 8][quote 9][note 16]

Jigme Lingpa divides the trekchö practice into ordinary and extraordinary instructions.[134] The ordinary section comprises the rejection of the all is mind – mind is empty approach, which is a conceptual establishment of emptiness.[134] Jigme Lingpa's extraordinary instructions give the instructions on the breakthrough proper, which consist of the setting out of the view (lta ba), the doubts and errors that may occur in practice, and some general instructions thematized as "the four ways of being at leisure" (cog bzhag).[134] The "setting out of the view" tries to point the reader toward a direct recognition of rigpa, insisting upon the immanence of rigpa, and dismissive of meditation and effort.).[135] Insight leads to nyamshag, "being present in the state of clarity and emptiness".[136] For instructions see Perfect Clarity, p.73, 2013


Tögal (thod rgal) means "spontaneous presence",[111][112] "direct crossing",[137] "direct crossing of spontaneous presence",[138] or "direct transcendence.[33] The literal meaning is "to proceed directly to the goal without having to go through intermediate steps."[139]

Tögal is also called "the practice of vision",[web 8] or "the practice of the Clear Light (od-gsal)".[web 8] It entails progressing through the Four Visions.[140] The practices engage the subtle body of psychic channels, winds and drops (rtsa rlung thig le).[3] The practices aim at generating a spontaneous flow of luminous, rainbow-colored images that gradually expand in extent and complexity.[44]

Tögal is an innovative practice,[44] and reflects the innovations of the Manngede cycles in Dzogchen, and the incorporation of complex tantric techniques and doctrines.[3] They are an adaptation of Tantric "perfection phase" techniques (rdzogs rim),[44] as outlined in the early-eleventh-century Indian Tantric Kalachakra cycle, "The Wheel of Time",[44] which was probably a direct inspiration for the Seminal Heart.[44]

Rainbow bodyEdit

Lhun grub practice may lead to full enlightenment and the self-liberation of the human body into a rainbow body[note 17] at the moment of death,[141] when all the fixation and grasping has been exhausted.[142] It is a nonmaterial body of light with the ability to exist and abide wherever and whenever as pointed by one's compassion.[110][143][144] It is a manifestation of the Sambhogakāya.[143]

Some exceptional practitioners such as the 24 Bön masters from the oral tradition of Zhang Zhung, Tapihritsa, Padmasambhava, Vimalamitra are held to have realized a higher type of rainbow body without dying. Having completed the four visions before death, the individual focuses on the lights that surround the fingers. His or her physical body self-liberates into a nonmaterial body of light (a Sambhogakāya) with the ability to exist and abide wherever and whenever as pointed by one's compassion.[143]

See alsoEdit


  1. ^ Tibetan has a ninefold classification scheme for the Buddhist teachings. First come the vehicles of the śrāvakas, pratyekabuddhas and bodhisattvas. Then come the three vehicles of "outer" yoga, and then the three vehicles of "inner" yoga. The "inner yoga" vehicles are Mahāyoga, Anuyoga and Atiyoga. The Dzogchen teachings are part of Atiyoga.[web 1]
  2. ^ The visualization of a deity and recitation of his or her mantra.[web 1]
  3. ^ In the eleventh and twelfth centuries there were several competing terma traditions surrounding Vimalamitra, Songtsen Gampo, Vairotsana and Padmasambhava.[46] At the end of the 12th century, there was the "victory of the Padmasambhava cult." [47] Nyangrel Nyima Özer was the principal architect of the Padmasambhava mythos.[48] The Maratika Cave is referred to in Tibetan literature from the 12th century. Kathang Zanglingma, a terma with the biography of Padmasambhava, revealed and transmitted by Nyangrel Nyima Ozer, narrates the "events: which made the Maratika caves a sacred place for Vajrayana practitioners.
  4. ^ rdzogs pa chen po tshig don bcu gcig pa bzhugs so
  5. ^ zab-chos zhi-khro dgongs-pa rang-grol
  6. ^ The bar-do thos-grol was translated by Kazi Dawa Samdup (1868–1922), and edited and published by W.Y. Evans-Wenz. This translation was popularized as "the Tibetan Book of the Dead", but contains many mistakes in translation and interpretation.[53][54] See also Reynolds, John Myrdin (1989), Self-Liberation through seeing with naked awareness, Station Hill Press, Inc.
  7. ^ Wylie: bka' brgyud
  8. ^ Wylie: rang byung rdo rje
  9. ^ Rangjung Dorje also influenced Dolpopa. In 1321 the famous scholar Dolpopa (1292–1361) visited Tsurphu Monastery for the first time and had extensive discussions with Rangjung Dorje about doctrinal issues. It appears that Rangjung Dorje almost certainly influenced the development of some of Dolpopa's theories, possibly including his Zhentong (gzhan stong) method.[66]
  10. ^ According to Berzin, this is the equivalent of the generation stage, as emphasized in Mahayoga.[web 6]
  11. '^ Korday Rushen; Tibetan: འཁོར་འདས་རུ་ཤན, Wylie: khor 'das ru shan
  12. ^ See Germano, David (1997), "The Elements, Insanity, and Lettered Subjectivity", in Lopez, Jr., Donald (ed.), The Religions of Tibet in Practice, Princeton University Press.
  13. ^ Berzin also uses the term "Mahayoga Stage" for this stage.[web 6]
  14. ^ Longchenpa divides them into three categories of seven exercises.[123] Exercises in the first category include

    "[F]ixating on a white Tibetan letter A on the tip of one's nose. Linking the letter with one's breathing, it goes out into space with each exhalation and returns to the tip of the nose with each inhalation. This fixation inhibits the arising of extraneous thoughts [...] however, the second exercise in the same category involves the sounding of the syllable PHAT! which instantly shatters one's thoughts and attachments. Symbolically, the two parts of the syllable indicate the two aspects of enlightenment, that is, PHA signifies Means (thabs) and TA signifies Wisdom (shes rab)."[123]

    According to Reynolds, it is this specific Semdzin practice which was used by Patrul Rinpoche to provide a direct introduction to the knowledge of rigpa. It temporarily blocks the flow of thought, and brings us temporarily in a state of emptiness and clarity.[125]

  15. ^ Compare Karma Chagme, who associates Trekchö with Semde.[126] He further equates Trekchö with Mahāmudrā,[126]
  16. ^ See also Ramana Maharshi's awakening, spontaneous kenshō, and sudden insight
  17. ^ Wylie: 'ja' lus, pronounced Jalü


  1. ^ John Pettit: "Great Perfection" variously indicates the texts (āgama, lung) and oral instructions (upadeśa, man ngag) that indicate the nature of enlightened wisdom (rdzogs chen gyi gzhung dang man ngag), the verbal conventions of those texts (rdzogs chen gyi chos skad), the yogis who meditate according to those texts and instructions (rdzogs chen gyi rnal 'byor pa), a famous monastery where the Great Perfection was practiced by monks and yogis (rdzogs chen dgon sde), and the philosophical system (siddhānta, grub mtha') or vision (darśana, lta ba) of the Great Perfection.[1]
  2. ^ Descriptions of rigpa:
    • Klein and Wangyal: "[...] the essence and base of self-arisen wisdom is the allbase, that primordial open awareness is the base, and that recognition of this base is not separate from the primordial wisdom itself [...] that open awareness is itself authentic and its authenticity is a function of it being aware of, or recognizing itself as, the base [...] The reflexively self-aware primordial wisdom is itself open awareness (rigpa), inalienably one with unbounded wholeness."Template:Klein
    • Reginald Rey: "...primordial wisdom's recognition of itself as unbounded wholeness [...] the incorruptible mindnature.[81]
  3. ^ Heidi Koppl: "Unlike Mipham, Rongzom did not attempt to harmonize the view of Mantra or Dzogchen with Madhyamaka."[99]
  4. ^ Heidi Koppl: "By now we have seen that Rongzom regards the views of the Sutrayana as inferior to those of Mantra, and he underscores his commitment to the purity of all phenomena by criticizing the Madhyamaka objectification of the authentic relative truth."[99]
  5. ^ Ron Garry: "The practice is that of Cutting through Solidity (khregs chod), which is related to primordial purity (ka dag); and Direct Vision of Reality (thod rgal), which is related to spontaneous presence (Ihun grub)."[110]
  6. ^ John Pettit , in Tricycle Magazine, winter 1997: "David Germano [...] describes unusual practices of the Great Perfection [...] Germano introduces the "differentiation of Samsara and Nirvana," a form of meditative warm-up exercise that has not, to my knowledge, ever been discussed so explicitly. This practice is unusual by any standard, Tibetan or Western, except perhaps for those who have experimented with Stanislav Grof's Holotropic Breathwork or Primal Scream Therapy. (See also Ego death). In the exercise, a practitioner jumps, prowls, and howls like a wolf and imitates its thought patterns, or pretends to be a mass murderer and then suddenly switches to the outlook of a self-sacrificing saint. "In short," Germano writes, "one lets oneself go crazy physically, verbally and mentally in a flood of diverse activity, so that by this total surrender to the play of images and desire across the mirroring surface of one's being, one gradually comes to understand the very nature of the mirror itself."[web 7]
  7. ^ See also:
    • The main trekchö instructions in the Lamrim Yeshe Nyingpo: "This instant freshness, unspoiled by the thoughts of the three times; You directly see in actuality by letting be in naturalness."[129]
    • Drubwang Tsoknyi Rinpoche: "Trekchö is the thorough cut of cutting through, cutting the obscurations completely to pieces, like slashing through them with a knife. So the past thought has ceased, the future thought hasn't yet arisen, and the knife is cutting through this stream of present thought. But one doesn't keep hold of this knife either; one lets the knife go, so there is a gap. When you cut through again and again in this way, the string of thought falls to pieces. If you cut a rosary in a few places, at some point it doesn't work any longer.[130]
    • Namkhai Norbu: "Once one has arrived at contemplation through any method, one has to continue in it, and working to bring this continuation into every action and situation is called Tregchöd, which literally means "(spontaneous cutting of tension," in the sense that as soon as the primordial state manifests and dualism is thus overcome, on einstantly falls into a state of total relaxation, like a bundle of sticks, that, having been bound together, falls loosely into a total relaxed pattern as soon as the string binding it has been cut."[124]
  8. ^ Tsoknyi Rinpoche: "As for my own personal experience, when I underwent the ngondro training, I had already received some Dzogchen instructions. The awakened state of rigpa had been pointed out, and I had a lukewarm certainty about what it was. But the ngondro helped me progress.[131]"
  9. ^ Some examples of Trekchö:
    • John Myrdhin Reynolds: "[T]he proper procedure is to introduce the practitioner directly to the state of contemplation by way of first dissolving one's mental activities (sems kyi yal-ba ngo-sprod-pa). If one observes the mind and searches for where a thought (rnam-rtog) arises, where it remains, and where it goes, no matter how much one researches and investigates this, one will find nothing. It is this very "unfindability" (mi rnyed) of the arising, the abiding, and the passing away of thoughts which is the greatest of all finds. Thoughts do not arise from anywhere (byung sa med), they do not remain anywhere (gnas sa med), and they do not go anywhere ('gro sa med). They do not arise from within the body, nor do they arise from outside the body. They are truly without any root or source (ghzi med rsta bral). Like the clouds in the sky, they arise only to dissolve again. Thoughts arise out of the state of emptiness and return again into this state of emptiness, which represents pure potentiality. We only have to observe our mind to discover this for ourselves. And this shunyata, this state of emptiness, is in fact the very essence of the mind (sems kyi ngo-bo stong-pa nyid).[132]
    • Sogyal Rinpoche: "Nyoshul Lungtok, who later became one of the greatest Dzogchen masters of recent times, followed his teacher Patrul Rinpoche for about eighteen years. During all that time, they were almost inseparable. Nyoshul Lungtok studied and practiced extremely diligently, and accumulated a wealth of purification, merit, and practice; he was ready to recognize the Rigpa, but had not yet had the final introduction. Then, one famous evening, Patrul Rinpoche gave him the introduction. It happened when they were staying together in one of the hermitages high up in the mountains above Dzogchen Monastery. It was a very beautiful night. The dark blue sky was clear and the stars shone brilliantly. The sound of their solitude was heightened by the distant barking of a dog from the monastery below. Patrul Rinpoche was lying stretched out on the ground, doing a special Dzogchen practice. He called Nyoshul Lungtok over to him, saying: "Did you say you do not know the essence of Mind?" Nyoshul Lungtok guessed from his tone that this was a special moment and nodded expectantly.
      "There's nothing to it really," Patrul Rinpoche said casually, and added, "My son, come and lie down over here: be like your old father." Nyoshul Lungtok stretched out by his side. Then Patrul Rinpoche asked him, "Do you see the stars up there in the sky?"
      "Do you hear the dogs barking in Dzogchen Monastery?"
      "Do you hear what I'm saying to you?"
      "Well, the nature of Dzogchen is this: simply this."
      Nyoshul Lungtok tells us what happened then: "At that instant, I arrived at a certainty of realization from within. I had been liberated from the fetters of 'it is' and 'it is not.' I had realized the primordial wisdom, the naked union of emptiness and intrinsic awareness. I was introduced to this realization by his blessing, as the great Indian master Saraha said: He in whose heart the words of the master have entered, Sees the truth like a treasure in his own palm."[133]


  1. ^ a b Pettit 1999, p. 4.
  2. ^ Keown 2003, p. 82.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v Buswell & Lopez 2014.
  4. ^ Keown 2003, p. 24.
  5. ^ Dalai Lama 2004, p. 208.
  6. ^ Anyen Rinpoche 2006, p. 12–13.
  7. ^ Anyen Rinpoche 2006, p. 57.
  8. ^ (1) Acintyaprabhasa, (2) Akshobhyapraba, (3) Pel Jikpa Kyopei Yi, (4) Zhonu Rolpa Nampar Tsewa, (5) Vajradhara, (6) Kumaravirabalin, (7) Drangsong Trhopei Gyelpo, (8) Arhat Survarnaprabhasa, (9) Tsewe Rolpei Lodro, (10) Kashyapa, the elder, (11) Yab Ngondzok Gyelpo, (12) Shakyamuni
  9. ^ Khenchen Palden Sherab Rinpoche, Illuminating the Path, pg 177-179. Padmasambhava Buddhist Center, 2008.[References also: Dudjom Rinpoche's The Nyingma School of Tibetan Buddhism, pg 134-138; Namkai Norbu's The Supreme Source, pg 23]
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h Irons 2008, p. 168.
  11. ^ a b c d e f g Germano 2005, p. 2545.
  12. ^ Schaik 2011, p. 99.
  13. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t Germano 2005, p. 2546.
  14. ^ Schaeffer, Kapstein & Tuttle 2013, p. 3.
  15. ^ a b c Schaeffer, Kapstein & Tuttle 2013, p. 4.
  16. ^ Schaeffer, Kapstein & Tuttle 2013, p. 4-5.
  17. ^ a b Schaeffer, Kapstein & Tuttle 2013, p. 5.
  18. ^ Manuel, Lopez (2014). "Bringing Light Into the Darkness: An Intellectual History of Tibet's Dark Age (842–978 CE)". UVA Library | Virgo. Retrieved 2017-08-06.
  19. ^ Samten Karmay (1998). The Great Perfection (rdzogs chen): A Philosophical and Meditative Teaching of Tibetan Buddhism. pp. 11, 55-58 119-120
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Germano, David (1994). Architecture and Absence in the Secret Tantric History of the Great Perfection (rdzogs chen). JIABS 17/2. Cite error: The named reference ":6" was defined multiple times with different content (see the help page).
  21. ^ "there is no meditative cultivation of a view; no preserving of commitments; no skill or exertion in enlightened activities; no obscuration of primordial gnosis; no cultivation or refinement of meditative stages; no path to traverse; no subtle phenomena; 9 no duality with relationships (between such discrete phenomena); no delineation of definitive scriptures aside from the mind; and no resolution in terms of esoteric precepts since it is beyond all reductionism, whether reifications or negations." - Germano, David (1994). Architecture and Absence in the Secret Tantric History of the Great Perfection (rdzogs chen). JIABS 17/2.
  22. ^ Germano, David. The Funerary Transformation of the Great Perfection (Rdzogs chen). Journal of the International Association of Tibetan Studies, no. 1 (October2005):1-54.
  23. ^ Van Schaik; Approaching the Great Perfection: Simultaneous and Gradual Methods of Dzogchen Practice in the Longchen Nyingtig (Studies in Indian and Tibetan Buddhism), 2004, 40
  24. ^ a b Schaik 2004a.
  25. ^ Schaik, Sam van (2004b), p. 4.
  26. ^ Anspal, Sten. Lost in Space: Tibetan formulations of the rDzogs-chen klong-sde. Acta Orientalia 2005.66, I I7 193.
  27. ^ Schaik, Sam van (2004b), p. 6.
  28. ^ a b Hatchell, Christopher (2014). Naked Seeing The Great Perfection, the Wheel of Time, and Visionary Buddhism in Renaissance Tibet, p. 52, Oxford University Press.
  29. ^ Schaik, Sam van (2004b), pp. 4-5.
  30. ^ a b c d e f g Germano, David (1994). Architecture and Absence in the Secret Tantric History of the Great Perfection (rdzogs chen). JIABS 17/2.
  31. ^ a b Davidson, Ronald M (20050. Tibetan Renaissance: Tantric Buddhism in the Rebirth of Tibetan Culture, pp. 211, 228, Columbia University Press.
  32. ^ Germano 2005, p. 2546-2547.
  33. ^ a b c d Germano 2005, p. 2547.
  34. ^ a b c d e f g h i Anspal, Sten. Lost in Space: Tibetan formulations of the rDzogs-chen klong-sde. Acta Orientalia 2005.66, I I7 193.
  35. ^ a b c Stewart MacKenzie 2014.
  36. ^ a b Germano & Gyatso 2001, p. 244.
  37. ^ Hatchell, Christopher (2014). Naked Seeing The Great Perfection, the Wheel of Time, and Visionary Buddhism in Renaissance Tibet, p. 54, Oxford University Press.
  38. ^ Hatchell, Christopher (2014). Naked Seeing The Great Perfection, the Wheel of Time, and Visionary Buddhism in Renaissance Tibet, p. 54, Oxford University Press.
  39. ^ a b c d e f Germano, David. The Funerary Transformation of the Great Perfection (Rdzogs chen). Journal of the International Association of Tibetan Studies, no. 1 (October2005):1-54.
  40. ^ Hatchell, Christopher (2014). Naked Seeing The Great Perfection, the Wheel of Time, and Visionary Buddhism in Renaissance Tibet, pp. 56-57, Oxford University Press.
  41. ^ Schmidt, Marcia Binder (Ed.) (2002). The Dzogchen Primer: Embracing The Spiritual Path According To The Great Perfection. London, Great Britain: Shambhala Publications, Inc. ISBN 1-57062-829-7 pg. 38)
  42. ^ Hatchell, Christopher (2014). Naked Seeing The Great Perfection, the Wheel of Time, and Visionary Buddhism in Renaissance Tibet, p. 60, Oxford University Press.
  43. ^ Hatchell, Christopher (2014). Naked Seeing The Great Perfection, the Wheel of Time, and Visionary Buddhism in Renaissance Tibet, p. 57, Oxford University Press.
  44. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n Germano 2005, p. 2548.
  45. ^ Hirschberg, Daniel (2013). "Nyangrel Nyima Ozer". The Treasury of Lives. Retrieved 2017-07-18.
  46. ^ Davidson 2005, p. 229.
  47. ^ Davidson 2005, p. 278.
  48. ^ Gyatso 2006.
  49. ^ Achard, Jean-Luc (2015). The View of sPyi ti yoga*
  50. ^ Schaik, Sam van (2004b), p. 9.
  51. ^ a b Fremantle 2001, p. 20.
  52. ^ Norbu 1989, p. ix.
  53. ^ a b Norbu 1989, p. xii.
  54. ^ a b Reynolds 1989, p. 71-115.
  55. ^ Klein & Wangmo 2010.
  56. ^ Padmakara Translation Group 1994, p. xxxv.
  57. ^ a b Patrul Rinpoche 2011.
  58. ^ Irons 2008, p. 169.
  59. ^ Helmut Krasser, Tibetan studies, International Association for Tibetan Studies. Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, 1997 – Tibet (China), page 586
  60. ^ Smith, Malcom; BUDDHAHOOD IN THIS LIFE, The Great Commentary by Vimalamitra, pg 12.
  61. ^ Van Schaik; Approaching the Great Perfection: Simultaneous and Gradual Methods of Dzogchen Practice in the Longchen Nyingtig (Studies in Indian and Tibetan Buddhism), 2004, p. 52.
  62. ^ Van Schaik; Approaching the Great Perfection: Simultaneous and Gradual Methods of Dzogchen Practice in the Longchen Nyingtig (Studies in Indian and Tibetan Buddhism), 2004, page 52.
  63. ^ Erik Pema Kunsang; Wellsprings of the Great Perfection The Lives and Insights of the Early Masters, p. 3
  64. ^ Smith, Malcom; BUDDHAHOOD IN THIS LIFE, The Great Commentary by Vimalamitra, pg 15.
  65. ^ The (14th) Dalai Lama (2000), Dzogchen: Heart Essence of the Great Perfection, p.109
  66. ^ Stearns, Cyrus (1999). The Buddha from Dolpo: A Study of the Life and Thought of the Tibetan Master Dolpopa Sherab Gyaltsen, pp. 17, 47–48, 51–52, 61. State University of New York Press. ISBN 0-7914-4191-1 (hc); ISBN 0-7914-4192-X (pbk).
  67. ^ Rinpoche Thrangu (2006), On Buddha Essence: A Commentary on Rangjung Dorje's Treatise, p. 2
  68. ^ Namkhai Norbu; The Crystal and the Way of Light: Sutra, Tantra, and Dzogchen, pp. 149–150
  69. ^ Smith, Malcom; BUDDHAHOOD IN THIS LIFE, The Great Commentary by Vimalamitra, pp. 12–13.
  70. ^ Smith, Malcom; BUDDHAHOOD IN THIS LIFE, The Great Commentary by Vimalamitra, p. 14.
  71. ^ Smith, Malcom; BUDDHAHOOD IN THIS LIFE, The Great Commentary by Vimalamitra, p. 13.
  72. ^ Petit, John Whitney (1999), Mipham's Beacon of Certainty: Illuminating the View of Dzochen, the Great Perfection, Boston: Wisdom Publications, pp. 78–79.
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  77. ^ Pettit, John W; Mipham's Beacon of Certainty: Illuminating the View of Dzogchen, 1999, page 78
  78. ^ Pettit, John W; Mipham's Beacon of Certainty: Illuminating the View of Dzogchen, 1999, page 79
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  80. ^ Klein & Wangyal 2006, p. 109.
  81. ^ a b Ray 2001, p. v.
  82. ^ Third Dzogchen Rinpoche 2008, p. 152.
  83. ^ Namdak 2006, p. 97.
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  88. ^ Tulku Urgyen Rinpoche; Repeating the Words of the Buddha, page 44
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  133. ^ Sogyal Rinpoche 1994, p. 160.
  134. ^ a b c Schaik 2004b, p. 99.
  135. ^ Schaik 2004b, p. 99-100.
  136. ^ Tenzin Wangyal Rinpoche 2001, p. 87.
  137. ^ Chökyi Nyima Rinpoche 1994, p. 44.
  138. ^ Schmidt 2002.
  139. ^ Chökyi Nyima Rinpoche 1994, p. 224.
  140. ^ Chökyi Nyima Rinpoche 1994, p. 38.
  141. ^ Dalai Lama 2004, p. 204.
  142. ^ Chökyi Nyima Rinpoche 1994, p. 233.
  143. ^ a b c Ricard 2001, p. 153.
  144. ^ Ray 2001, p. 323.


Published sourcesEdit

Dzogchen textsEdit

  • Anyen Rinpoche (2006), The Union of Dzogchen and Bodhichitta (First ed.), Snow Lion, p. 256, ISBN 978-1559392488
  • Klein, Anne Carolyn; Wangyal, Geshe Tenzin Rinpoche (2006), Unbounded Wholeness, Oxford University Press
  • Klein, Anne Carolyn; Wangmo, Jetsun Kacho (2010), Heart Essence of the Vast Expanse: A Story of Transmission, Snow Lion Publications
  • Ricard, Matthieu (2001), The Life of Shabkar: The Autobiography of a Tibetan Yogin, Ithaca: Snow Lion Publications
  • Padmasambhava (1998). Natural Liberation: Padmasambhava's Teachings on the Six Bardos. Wisdom Publications. ISBN 978-0861711314
  • Patrul Rinpoche (1998), The Words of My Perfect Teacher, Altamira
  • Patrul Rinpoche (2011), The Words of My Perfect Teacher, First University Press Edition, ISBN 978-0-300-16532-6
  • Reynolds, John Myrdin (1989), Self-Liberation through seeing with naked awareness, Station Hill Press, Inc.
  • Reynolds, John Myrdhin (1996), The Golden Letters: The Tibetan Teachings of Garab Dorje, First Dzogchen Master, Snow Lion Publications, ISBN 978-1-55939-050-7
  • Reynolds, John Myrdhin (2005), The Oral Tradition from Zhang-Zhung: An Introduction to the Bonpo Dzogchen Teachings of the Oral Tradition from Zhang-Zhung Known as the Zhang-zhung snyan-rgyud, Vajra Publications, ISBN 978-99946-644-4-3

Contemporary Tibetan sources (including westerners)Edit

  • Capriles, Elías (2007), Buddhism and Dzogchen. Part 1 – Buddhism: a Dzogchen Outlook. (PDF), archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-07-17
  • Chökyi Nyima Rinpoche (1994), Union of Mahamudra and Dzogchen, Rangjung Yeshe Publications
  • Chökyi Nyima Rinpoche (2004), The Bardo Guidebook, Rangjung Yeshe Publications
  • Dahl, Cortland (2009), Entrance to the Great Perfection: A Guide to the Dzogchen Preliminary Practices, Snow Lion Publications
  • Dalai Lama (2004), Dzogchen. Heart Essence of the Great Perfection, Snow Lion Publications, ISBN 978-1-55939-219-8
  • Dudjom Rinpoche (1991), The Nyingma School of Tibetan Buddhism, Vol. 1, Wisdom Publications, ISBN 978-0-86171-087-4
  • Dudjom Rinpoche (2008), Wisdom Nectar, Snow Lion
  • Fremantle, Francesca (2001), Luminous Emptiness: understanding the Tibetan Book of the dead, Boston, MA: Shambhala Publications, ISBN 978-1-57062-450-6
  • Koppl, Heidi (2008), Introduction to "Establishing Appearances as Divine", Snow Lion Publications
  • Namdak, Tenzin (2006), Bonpo Dzogchen Teachings, Vajra Publications
  • Norbu, Namkhai (1989), "Foreword", in Reynolds, John Myrdin (ed.), Self-liberation through seeing with naked awareness, Station Hill Press, Inc.
  • Norbu, Namkhai (2000), The Crystal and the Way of Light, Snow LIon Publications
  • Padmakara Translation group (1994), "Translators' Introduction", The Words of My Perfect teacher, HarperCollins Publishers India
  • Ray, Reginald (2001), Secret of the Vajra World, Shambhala
  • Reynolds, John Myrdin (1989), "Appendix I: The views on Dzogchen of W.Y. Evans-Wentz and C.G. Jung", in Reynolds, John Myrdin (ed.), Self-liberation through seeing with naked awareness, Station Hill Press, Inc.
  • Schmidt, Erik (2001), The Light of Wisdom Vol IV, Kathmandu: Rangjung Yeshe Publications
  • Sogyal Rinpoche (1994), The Tibetan Book of Living and Dying: Revised and Updated Edition, = HarperOne, ISBN 978-0-06-250834-8
  • Sogyal Rinpoche (2009), The Tibetan Book of Living and Dying, Harper Collins, Kindle Edition
  • Stewart MacKenzie, Jampa (2014), The Life of Longchenpa: The Omniscient Dharma King of the Vast Expanse, Shambhala
  • Tenzin Wangyal Rinpoche (2000), Wonders of the Natural Mind: The Essence of Dzogchen in the Native Bon Tradition of Tibet, Snow Lion Publications
  • Tenzin Wangyal Rinpoche (2001), Het wonder van onze oorspronkelijke geest. Dzokchen in de bontraditie van Tibet (Dutch translation of "Wonders of the Natural Mind"), Elmar BV
  • Third Dzogchen Rinpoche (2008), Great Perfection. Volume II, Snow Lion Publications
  • Tsoknyi Rinpoche (2004), "Introduction", in Schmidt, Marcia Binder (ed.), Dzogchen Essentials: The Path That Clarifies Confusion, Rangjung Yeshe Publications

Scholarly and western sourcesEdit

  • Buswell, Robert; Lopez, Donald S. Jr., eds. (2014), The Princeton Dictionary of Buddhism, Princeton University Press
  • Davidson, Ronald M. (2005), Tibetan Renaissance, Columbia University Press
  • Gyatso, Janet (2006), "A Partial Genealogy of the Lifestory of Ye shes mtsho rgyal", The Journal of the International Association of Tibetan Studies (2)
  • Germano, David F. (1994), "Architecture and Absence in the Secret Tantric History of rDzogs Chen", The Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies, Vol. 17.2, 17 (2): 203–335
  • Germano, David; Gyatso, Janet (2001), "Longchenpa and the Possession of the Dakinis", in White, David Gordon (ed.), Tantra in Practice, Motilal Banarsidass Publ.
  • Germano, David (2005), "Dzogchen", in Jones, Lindsay (ed.), Macmillan Encyclopedia of Religion. Vol.4: Dacian Riders – Esther, MacMillan Reference USA
  • Germano, David F.; Waldron, William S. (2006), "A Comparison of Alaya-vijñāna in Yogacara and Dzogchen" (PDF), in Nauriyal, D. K.; Drummond, Michael S.; Lal, Y. B. (eds.), Buddhist Thought and Applied Psychological Research: Transcending the boundaries, Abingdon, Oxon.: Routledge, pp. 36–68, ISBN 978-0415374316
  • Ingram, Catherine (1983), "The Secret Teachings of Tibet: An Interview with American Lama Sura Das", Yoga Journal (109): 61–65, 122–123
  • Irons, Edward A. (2008), "Dzogchen", in Irons, Edward A. (ed.), Encyclopedia of Buddhism, Facts On File, Inc. An imprint of Infobase Publishing
  • Karmey, Samten G. (1975). A General Introduction to the History and Doctrines of Bon. Memoirs of the Research Department of the Toyo Bunko, No. 33, pp. 171–218. Tokyo. (Especially Chapter 9 on rDzogs-chen on pp. 213–215)
  • Karmay, Samten Gyaltsen (2007), The Great Perfection (rdzogs chen). A Philosophical and Meditative Teaching of Tibetan Buddhism, BRILL
  • Keown, Damien (2003), A Dictionary of Buddhism, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0-19-860560-7
  • Pettit, John Whitney (1999), Mipham's beacon of certainty: illuminating the view of Dzogchen, the Great Perfection, Wisdom Publications, ISBN 978-0-86171-157-4
  • Schaik, Sam van (2004a), "The early Days of the Great Perfection" (PDF), Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies 27/1 (2004): 165–206
  • Schaik, Sam van (2004b), Approaching the Great Perfection: Simultaneous and Gradual Methods of Dzogchen Practice in the Longchen Nyingtig, Wisdom Publications
  • Schaik, Sam van (2011), Tibet A History, Yale University Press
  • Schaeffer, Kurtis R.; Kapstein, Matthew; Tuttle, Gray, eds. (2013), Sources of Tibetan Tradition, Columbia University Press


Further readingEdit

  • Germano, David (2004), "Dzogchen", in Jones, Lindsay (ed.), Macmillan Encyclopedia of Religion. Vol.4: Dacian Riders – Esther, MacMillan Reference USA
  • Schaik, Sam van (2004), "The early Days of the Great Perfection" (PDF), Journal of the International Association of Buddhist Studies 27/1 (2004): 165–206
  • Karmay, Samten Gyaltsen (2007), The Great Perfection (rdzogs chen). A Philosophical and Meditative Teaching of Tibetan Buddhism, BRILL
Structure of practice

External linksEdit

Tibetan articles
Scholarly articles