Donald Knuth

Donald Ervin Knuth (/kəˈnθ/[3] kə-NOOTH; born January 10, 1938) is an American computer scientist, mathematician, and professor emeritus at Stanford University. He is the 1974 recipient of the ACM Turing Award, informally considered the Nobel Prize of computer science.[4] Knuth has been called the "father of the analysis of algorithms".[5]

Donald Knuth

KnuthAtOpenContentAlliance.jpg
Knuth in 2005
Born
Donald Ervin Knuth

(1938-01-10) January 10, 1938 (age 82)
NationalityAmerican
Alma mater
Known for
Spouse(s)Nancy Jill Carter
Children2
Awards
Scientific career
Fields
InstitutionsStanford University
ThesisFinite Semifields and Projective Planes (1963)
Doctoral advisorMarshall Hall, Jr.[2]
Doctoral students
Websitecs.stanford.edu/~knuth

He is the author of the multi-volume work The Art of Computer Programming. He contributed to the development of the rigorous analysis of the computational complexity of algorithms and systematized formal mathematical techniques for it. In the process he also popularized the asymptotic notation. In addition to fundamental contributions in several branches of theoretical computer science, Knuth is the creator of the TeX computer typesetting system, the related METAFONT font definition language and rendering system, and the Computer Modern family of typefaces.

As a writer and scholar, Knuth created the WEB and CWEB computer programming systems designed to encourage and facilitate literate programming, and designed the MIX/MMIX instruction set architectures. Knuth strongly opposes the granting of software patents, having expressed his opinion to the United States Patent and Trademark Office and European Patent Organisation.

BiographyEdit

Early lifeEdit

Knuth was born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, to German-Americans Ervin Henry Knuth and Louise Marie Bohning. His father owned a small printing business and taught bookkeeping.[6] Donald, a student at Milwaukee Lutheran High School, thought of ingenious ways to solve problems. For example, in eighth grade, he entered a contest to find the number of words that the letters in "Ziegler's Giant Bar" could be rearranged to create; the judges had identified 2,500 such words. With time gained away from school due to a pretend stomach ache, and working the problem the other way, Knuth used an unabridged dictionary and determined if each dictionary entry could be formed using the letters in the phrase. Using this algorithm, he identified over 4,500 words, winning the contest.[7] As prizes, the school received a new television and enough candy bars for all of his schoolmates to eat.[8]

EducationEdit

Knuth received a scholarship in physics to the Case Institute of Technology (now part of Case Western Reserve University) in Cleveland, Ohio, enrolling in 1956.[9] He also joined Beta Nu Chapter of the Theta Chi fraternity. While studying physics at Case, Knuth was introduced to the IBM 650, an early commercial computer. After reading the computer's manual, Knuth decided to rewrite the assembly and compiler code for the machine used in his school, because he believed he could do it better.[10]

In 1958, Knuth created a program to help his school's basketball team win their games.[11] He assigned "values" to players in order to gauge their probability of getting points, a novel approach that Newsweek and CBS Evening News later reported on.[10]

Knuth was one of the founding editors of Case Institute's Engineering and Science Review, which won a national award as best technical magazine in 1959.[12][13] He then switched from physics to mathematics, and received two degrees from Case in 1960:[9] his bachelor of science degree, and simultaneously a master of science by a special award of the faculty, who considered his work exceptionally outstanding.[10][4]

In 1963, with mathematician Marshall Hall as his adviser,[2] he earned a PhD in mathematics from the California Institute of Technology.[14]

Early workEdit

After receiving his PhD, Knuth joined Caltech's faculty as an assistant professor.[15]

He accepted a commission to write a book on computer programming language compilers. While working on this project, Knuth decided that he could not adequately treat the topic without first developing a fundamental theory of computer programming, which became The Art of Computer Programming. He originally planned to publish this as a single book. As Knuth developed his outline for the book, he concluded that he required six volumes, and then seven, to thoroughly cover the subject. He published the first volume in 1968.[16]

Just before publishing the first volume of The Art of Computer Programming, Knuth left Caltech to accept employment with the Institute for Defense Analyses' Communications Research Division, then situated on the Princeton University campus, which was performing mathematical research in cryptography to support the National Security Agency.

In 1967 Knuth attended Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics conference and someone asked what he did. At the time computer science was partitioned into numerical analysis, artificial intelligence and programming languages. Based on his study and The Art of Computer Programming book, Knuth decided the next time someone asked he would say, “Analysis of algorithms.”[17]

Knuth then left this position to join the Stanford University faculty in 1969[18], where he is now Fletcher Jones Professor of Computer Science, Emeritus.[19][20]

WritingsEdit

Knuth is a writer, as well as a computer scientist.[15]

The Art of Computer Programming (TAOCP)Edit

In the 1970s, Knuth described computer science as "a totally new field with no real identity. And the standard of available publications was not that high. A lot of the papers coming out were quite simply wrong. ... So one of my motivations was to put straight a story that had been very badly told."[21] By 2011, the first three volumes and part one of volume four of his series had been published.[16] Concrete Mathematics: A Foundation for Computer Science 2nd ed., which originated with an expansion of the mathematical preliminaries section of Volume 1 of TAoCP, has also been published. Knuth said he is hard at work on part B of volume 4, and he anticipates that the book will have at least parts A through F.[17]

Bill Gates has praised the difficulty of the subject matter in The Art of Computer Programming, stating, "If you think you're a really good programmer ... You should definitely send me a résumé if you can read the whole thing."[22]

Other worksEdit

Knuth is also the author of Surreal Numbers,[23] a mathematical novelette on John Conway's set theory construction of an alternate system of numbers. Instead of simply explaining the subject, the book seeks to show the development of the mathematics. Knuth wanted the book to prepare students for doing original, creative research.

In 1995, Knuth wrote the foreword to the book A=B by Marko Petkovšek, Herbert Wilf and Doron Zeilberger.[24] Knuth is also an occasional contributor of language puzzles to Word Ways: The Journal of Recreational Linguistics.[25]

Knuth has also delved into recreational mathematics. He contributed articles to the Journal of Recreational Mathematics beginning in the 1960s, and was acknowledged as a major contributor in Joseph Madachy's Mathematics on Vacation.[26]

Knuth has also appeared in a number of Numberphile[27] and Computerphile videos on YouTube where he has discussed topics from writing Surreal Numbers[28] to why he doesn't use email.[29]

Works regarding Knuth's religious beliefsEdit

In addition to his writings on computer science, Knuth, a Lutheran,[30] is also the author of 3:16 Bible Texts Illuminated,[31] in which he examines the Bible by a process of systematic sampling, namely an analysis of chapter 3, verse 16 of each book. Each verse is accompanied by a rendering in calligraphic art, contributed by a group of calligraphers under the leadership of Hermann Zapf. Subsequently, he was invited to give a set of lectures on his 3:16 project, resulting in another book, Things a Computer Scientist Rarely Talks About, where he published the lectures "God and Computer Science".

Opinion on software patentsEdit

As a member of the academic and scientific community, Knuth is strongly opposed to the policy of granting software patents for trivial solutions that should be obvious, but has expressed more nuanced views for nontrivial solutions such as the interior-point method of linear programming.[32] He has expressed his disagreement directly to both the United States Patent and Trademark Office and European Patent Organisation.[33]

Computer MusingsEdit

Knuth gives informal lectures a few times a year at Stanford University, which he titled "Computer Musings". He was a visiting professor at the Oxford University Department of Computer Science in the United Kingdom until 2017 and an Honorary Fellow of Magdalen College.[34][35]

ProgrammingEdit

Digital typesettingEdit

In the 1970s the publishers of TAOCP abandoned Monotype in favor of phototypesetting. Knuth became so frustrated with the inability of the latter system to approach the quality of the previous volumes, which were typeset using the older system, that he took time out to work on digital typesetting and created TeX and Metafont.[36]

Literate programmingEdit

While developing TeX, Knuth created a new methodology of programming, which he called literate programming, because he believed that programmers should think of programs as works of literature. "Instead of imagining that our main task is to instruct a computer what to do, let us concentrate rather on explaining to human beings what we want a computer to do."[37]

Knuth embodied the idea of literate programming in the WEB system. The same WEB source is used to weave a TeX file, and to tangle a Pascal source file. These in their turn produce a readable description of the program and an executable binary respectively. A later iteration of the system, CWEB, replaces Pascal with C.

Knuth used WEB to program TeX and METAFONT, and published both programs as books: The TeXbook, which is originally published in 1984, and The METAFONTbook, which is originally published in 1986.[38] Around the same time, LaTeX, the now-widely-adopted macro package based on TeX, was first developed by Leslie Lamport, who later published its first user manual in 1986.[39]

MusicEdit

Knuth is an organist and a composer. In 2016 he completed a musical piece for organ titled Fantasia Apocalyptica, which he describes as "translation of the Greek text of the Revelation of Saint John the Divine into music". It was premièred in Sweden on January 10, 2018.[40]

Personal lifeEdit

Donald Knuth married Nancy Jill Carter on 24 June 1961, while he was a graduate student at the California Institute of Technology. They have two children: John Martin Knuth and Jennifer Sierra Knuth.[41]

Chinese nameEdit

Knuth's Chinese name is Gao Dena (simplified Chinese: 高德纳; traditional Chinese: 高德納; pinyin: Gāo dé nà).[42][3] In 1977, he was given this name by Frances Yao, shortly before making a 3-week trip to China.[3][43] In his 1980 volume of The Art of Computer Programming (simplified Chinese: 计算机程序设计艺术; traditional Chinese: 電腦程式設計藝術; pinyin: Jìsuànjī chéngxù shèjì yìshù), Knuth explains that he embraced his Chinese name because he wanted to be known by the growing numbers of computer programmers in China at the time. In 1989, his Chinese name was placed atop the Journal of Computer Science and Technology's header, which Knuth says "makes me feel close to all Chinese people although I cannot speak your language".[43]

Health concernsEdit

In 2006, Knuth was diagnosed with prostate cancer. He underwent surgery in December that year and stated, "a little bit of radiation therapy ... as a precaution but the prognosis looks pretty good", as he reported in his video autobiography.[44]

HumorEdit

Knuth used to pay a finder's fee of $2.56 for any typographical errors or mistakes discovered in his books, because "256 pennies is one hexadecimal dollar", and $0.32 for "valuable suggestions". According to an article in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology's Technology Review, these Knuth reward checks are "among computerdom's most prized trophies". Knuth had to stop sending real checks in 2008 due to bank fraud, and instead now gives each error finder a "certificate of deposit" from a publicly listed balance in his fictitious "Bank of San Serriffe".[45]

He once warned a correspondent, "Beware of bugs in the above code; I have only proved it correct, not tried it."[3]

Knuth published his first "scientific" article in a school magazine in 1957 under the title "The Potrzebie System of Weights and Measures". In it, he defined the fundamental unit of length as the thickness of Mad No. 26, and named the fundamental unit of force "whatmeworry". Mad published the article in issue No. 33 (June 1957).[46][47]

To demonstrate the concept of recursion, Knuth intentionally referred "Circular definition" and "Definition, circular" to each other in the index of The Art of Computer Programming, Volume 1.

The preface of Concrete Mathematics has the following paragraph:

When DEK taught Concrete Mathematics at Stanford for the first time, he explained the somewhat strange title by saying that it was his attempt to teach a math course that was hard instead of soft. He announced that, contrary to the expectations of his colleagues, he was not going to teach the Theory of Aggregates, nor Stone's Embedding Theorem, nor even the Stone–Čech compactification. (Several students from the civil engineering department got up and quietly left the room.)

At the TUG 2010 Conference, Knuth announced a satirical XML-based successor to TeX, titled "iTeX" (pronounced [iː˨˩˦tɛks˧˥], performed with a bell ringing), which would support features such as arbitrarily scaled irrational units, 3D printing, input from seismographs and heart monitors, animation, and stereophonic sound.[48][49][50]

Awards and honorsEdit

In 1971, Knuth was the recipient of the first ACM Grace Murray Hopper Award.[51] He has received various other awards including the Turing Award, the National Medal of Science, the John von Neumann Medal, and the Kyoto Prize.[51]

Knuth was elected a Distinguished Fellow of the British Computer Society (DFBCS) in 1980 in recognition of Knuth's contributions to the field of computer science.[52]

In 1990 he was awarded the one-of-a-kind academic title of Professor of The Art of Computer Programming, which has since been revised to Professor Emeritus of The Art of Computer Programming.

Knuth was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1975. In 1992, he became an associate of the French Academy of Sciences. Also that year, he retired from regular research and teaching at Stanford University in order to finish The Art of Computer Programming. He was elected a Foreign Member of the Royal Society (ForMemRS) in 2003.[1]

Knuth was elected as a Fellow (first class of Fellows) of the Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics in 2009 for his outstanding contributions to mathematics.[53] He is a member of the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters.[54] In 2012, he became a fellow of the American Mathematical Society.[55] Other awards and honors include:

GalleryEdit

PublicationsEdit

A short list of his publications include:[69]

The Art of Computer Programming:

  1. ——— (1997). The Art of Computer Programming. 1: Fundamental Algorithms (3rd ed.). Addison-Wesley Professional. ISBN 978-0-201-89683-1.
  2. ——— (1997). The Art of Computer Programming. 2: Seminumerical Algorithms (3rd ed.). Addison-Wesley Professional. ISBN 978-0-201-89684-8.
  3. ——— (1998). The Art of Computer Programming. 3: Sorting and Searching (2nd ed.). Addison-Wesley Professional. ISBN 978-0-201-89685-5.
  4. ——— (2011). The Art of Computer Programming. 4A: Combinatorial Algorithms. Addison-Wesley Professional. ISBN 978-0-201-03804-0.
  5. ——— (2005). MMIX—A RISC Computer for the New Millennium. 1, Fascicle 1. ISBN 978-0-201-85392-6.
  6. ——— (2008). The Art of Computer Programming. 4, Fascicle 0: Introduction to Combinatorial Algorithms and Boolean Functions. ISBN 978-0-321-53496-5.
  7. ——— (2009). The Art of Computer Programming. 4, Fascicle 1: Bitwise Tricks & Techniques; Binary Decision Diagrams. ISBN 978-0-321-58050-4.
  8. ——— (2005). The Art of Computer Programming. 4, Fascicle 2: Generating All Tuples and Permutations. ISBN 978-0-201-85393-3.
  9. ——— (2005). The Art of Computer Programming. 4, Fascicle 3: Generating All Combinations and Partitions. ISBN 978-0-201-85394-0.
  10. ——— (2006). The Art of Computer Programming. 4, Fascicle 4: Generating All Trees—History of Combinatorial Generation. ISBN 978-0-321-33570-8.
  11. ——— (2018). The Art of Computer Programming. 4, Fascicle 5: Mathematical Preliminaries Redux; Backtracking; Dancing Links. ISBN 978-0-134-67179-6.
  12. ——— (2015). The Art of Computer Programming. 4, Fascicle 6: Satisfiability. ISBN 978-0-134-39760-3.

Computers and Typesetting (all books are hardcover unless otherwise noted):

  1. ——— (1984). Computers & Typesetting. A, The TeXbook. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. ISBN 978-0-201-13447-6., x+483pp.
  2. ——— (1984). Computers & Typesetting. A, The TeXbook. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. ISBN 978-0-201-13448-3. (softcover).
  3. ——— (1986). Computers & Typesetting. B, TeX: The Program. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. ISBN 978-0-201-13437-7., xviii+600pp.
  4. ——— (1986). Computers & Typesetting. C, The METAFONTbook. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. ISBN 978-0-201-13445-2., xii+361pp.
  5. ——— (1986). Computers & Typesetting. C, The METAFONTbook. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. ISBN 978-0-201-13444-5. (softcover).
  6. ——— (1986). Computers & Typesetting. D, METAFONT: The Program. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. ISBN 978-0-201-13438-4., xviii+566pp.
  7. ——— (1986). Computers & Typesetting. E, Computer Modern Typefaces. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. ISBN 978-0-201-13446-9., xvi+588pp.
  8. ——— (2000). Computers & Typesetting. A-E Boxed Set. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. ISBN 978-0-201-73416-4.

Books of collected papers:

  1. ——— (1992). Literate Programming. Lecture Notes. Stanford, CA: Center for the Study of Language and Information—CSLI. ISBN 978-0-937073-80-3.[70]
  2. ——— (1996). Selected Papers on Computer Science. Lecture Notes. Stanford, CA: Center for the Study of Language and Information—CSLI. ISBN 978-1-881526-91-9.[71]
  3. ——— (1999). Digital Typography. Lecture Notes. Stanford, CA: Center for the Study of Language and Information—CSLI. ISBN 978-1-57586-010-7.[72]
  4. ——— (2000). Selected Papers on Analysis of Algorithms. Lecture Notes. Stanford, CA: Center for the Study of Language and Information—CSLI. ISBN 978-1-57586-212-5.[73]
  5. ——— (2003). Selected Papers on Computer Languages. Lecture Notes. Stanford, CA: Center for the Study of Language and Information—CSLI. ISBN 978-1-57586-381-8., ISBN 1-57586-382-0 (paperback)[74]
  6. ——— (2003). Selected Papers on Discrete Mathematics. Lecture Notes. Stanford, CA: Center for the Study of Language and Information—CSLI. ISBN 978-1-57586-249-1., ISBN 1-57586-248-4 (paperback)[75]
  7. Donald E. Knuth, Selected Papers on Design of Algorithms (Stanford, California: Center for the Study of Language and Information—CSLI Lecture Notes, no. 191), 2010. ISBN 1-57586-583-1 (cloth), ISBN 1-57586-582-3 (paperback)[76]
  8. Donald E. Knuth, Selected Papers on Fun and Games (Stanford, California: Center for the Study of Language and Information—CSLI Lecture Notes, no. 192), 2011. ISBN 978-1-57586-585-0 (cloth), ISBN 978-1-57586-584-3 (paperback)[77]
  9. Donald E. Knuth, Companion to the Papers of Donald Knuth (Stanford, California: Center for the Study of Language and Information—CSLI Lecture Notes, no. 202), 2011. ISBN 978-1-57586-635-2 (cloth), ISBN 978-1-57586-634-5 (paperback)[78]

Other books:

  1. Graham, Ronald L; Knuth, Donald E.; Patashnik, Oren (1994). Concrete mathematics: A foundation for computer science (Second ed.). Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. ISBN 978-0-201-55802-9. MR 1397498. xiv+657 pp.
  2. Knuth, Donald Ervin (1974). Surreal numbers: how two ex-students turned on to pure mathematics and found total happiness: a mathematical novelette. Addison-Wesley. ISBN 978-0-201-03812-5.[23]
  3. Donald E. Knuth, The Stanford GraphBase: A Platform for Combinatorial Computing (New York, ACM Press) 1993. second paperback printing 2009. ISBN 0-321-60632-9
  4. Donald E. Knuth, 3:16 Bible Texts Illuminated (Madison, Wisconsin: A-R Editions), 1990. ISBN 0-89579-252-4
  5. Donald E. Knuth, Things a Computer Scientist Rarely Talks About (Center for the Study of Language and Information—CSLI Lecture Notes no 136), 2001. ISBN 1-57586-326-X
  6. Donald E. Knuth, MMIXware: A RISC Computer for the Third Millennium (Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag— Lecture Notes in Computer Science, no. 1750), 1999. viii+550pp. ISBN 978-3-540-66938-8
  7. Donald E. Knuth and Silvio Levy, The CWEB System of Structured Documentation (Reading, Massachusetts: Addison-Wesley), 1993. iv+227pp. ISBN 0-201-57569-8. Third printing 2001 with hypertext support, ii + 237 pp.
  8. Donald E. Knuth, Tracy L. Larrabee, and Paul M. Roberts, Mathematical Writing (Washington, D.C.: Mathematical Association of America), 1989. ii+115pp
  9. Daniel H. Greene and Donald E. Knuth, Mathematics for the Analysis of Algorithms (Boston: Birkhäuser), 1990. viii+132pp.
  10. Donald E. Knuth, Mariages Stables: et leurs relations avec d'autres problèmes combinatoires (Montréal: Les Presses de l'Université de Montréal), 1976. 106pp.
  11. Donald E. Knuth, Axioms and Hulls (Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag—Lecture Notes in Computer Science, no. 606), 1992. ix+109pp. ISBN 3-540-55611-7

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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  2. ^ a b c Donald Knuth at the Mathematics Genealogy Project
  3. ^ a b c d Knuth, Donald Ervin. "Frequently Asked Questions". Home page. Stanford University. Archived from the original on August 3, 2019. Retrieved November 2, 2010.
  4. ^ a b "A.M. Turing Award; Donald ("Don") Erwin Knuth". ACM. 1974. Archived from the original on October 17, 2019. Retrieved January 6, 2020.
  5. ^ Karp, Richard M. (February 1986). "Combinatorics, Complexity, and Randomness". Communications of the ACM. 29 (2): 98–109. doi:10.1145/5657.5658.
  6. ^ Molly Knight Raskin (2013). No Better Time: The Brief, Remarkable Life of Danny Lewin--the Genius who Transformed the Internet. Da Capo Press, Incorporated. pp. 61–62. ISBN 978-0-306-82166-0.
  7. ^ Feigenbaum, Edward. "Oral History of Donald Knuth" (PDF). Computer History Museum. Computer History Museum. Retrieved September 17, 2020.
  8. ^ Shasha, Dennis Elliott; Lazere, Cathy A (1998). Out of their minds: the lives and discoveries of 15 great computer scientists. Springer. p. 90. ISBN 978-0-387-98269-4.
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  10. ^ a b c Koshy, Thomas (2004). Discrete mathematics with applications. Academic Press. p. 244. ISBN 978-0-12-421180-3. Archived from the original on November 12, 2012. Retrieved July 30, 2011.
  11. ^ Lyons, Keith (September 25, 2018). "Donald Knuth, basketball and computers in sport". Clyde Street Archive. Archived from the original on August 16, 2019. Retrieved August 16, 2019.
  12. ^ "Beta Nu of Theta Chi, History of Beta Nu Chapter". CWRU. Archived from the original on September 4, 2016. Retrieved April 15, 2019.
  13. ^ "Beta Nu, Theta Chi". Theta Chi. Archived from the original on December 21, 2019. Retrieved December 21, 2019.
  14. ^ Knuth, Donald Ervin (1963). "Finite Semifields and Projective Planes" (PDF). CaltechPhD dissertation
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  16. ^ a b Knuth, Donald Ervin (August 3, 2019). "The Art of Computer Programming (TAOCP)". Archived from the original on August 3, 2019. Retrieved February 6, 2018.
  17. ^ a b D'Agostino, Susan (April 16, 2020). "The Computer Scientist Who Can't Stop Telling Stories". Quanta Magazine. Retrieved April 19, 2020.
  18. ^ "Department Timeline | Stanford Computer Science". cs.stanford.edu. Archived from the original on February 17, 2020. Retrieved July 19, 2019.
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  20. ^ "Donald Knuth". Profiles. Stanford University. Archived from the original on June 12, 2016. Retrieved August 24, 2020.
  21. ^ "BBVA Foundation Frontiers of Knowledge Awards". Archived from the original on August 19, 2016. Retrieved October 15, 2016.
  22. ^ Weinberger, Matt (April 26, 2016). "Bill Gates once said 'definitely send me a résumé' if you finish this fiendishly difficult book'". BusinessInsider.com. Archived from the original on March 1, 2019. Retrieved June 13, 2016. "If you think you're a really good programmer… read (Knuth's) Art of Computer Programming… You should definitely send me a résumé if you can read the whole thing," read a quote from Bill Gates on the cover of the third edition of the first volume.
  23. ^ a b Knuth, Donald Ervin. "Surreal numbers". Home page. Archived from the original on August 3, 2019. Retrieved March 26, 2020.
  24. ^ Zeilberg. "DEK". Rutgers. Archived from the original on August 28, 2017. Retrieved March 26, 2020.
  25. ^ "The Linguist List -- Journal Page". linguistlist.org. Archived from the original on September 10, 2019. Retrieved July 19, 2019.
  26. ^ Madachy, Joseph S.,Mathematics on Vacation, Thomas Nelson & Sons Ltd. 1966
  27. ^ "Videos about Numbers and Stuff". Numberphile. Archived from the original on November 4, 2018. Retrieved August 16, 2019.
  28. ^ Numberphile (June 27, 2016), Surreal Numbers (writing the first book) - Numberphile, retrieved July 19, 2019
  29. ^ Computerphile (August 21, 2015), Why Don Knuth Doesn't Use Email - Computerphile, archived from the original on July 11, 2018, retrieved July 19, 2019
  30. ^ Platoni 2006.
  31. ^ Knuth, Donald Ervin (1991). 3:16 : Bible texts illuminated. Madison, WI: A-R Eds. ISBN 978-0-89579-252-5.
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  33. ^ Knuth, Donald Ervin. "Against software patents" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on September 24, 2015. Retrieved February 1, 2020Letter to the patent offices in the USA and Europe.
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  35. ^ "Notices". Oxford University Gazette. October 30, 2014. Archived from the original on May 15, 2015. Retrieved May 21, 2015.
  36. ^ Knuth, Donald Erwin (1997). "Digital Typography (Kyoto Prize Lecture, 1996)" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on January 27, 2018.
  37. ^ Knuth, Donald Erwin (1984). "Literate Programming" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on August 19, 2019. Retrieved March 26, 2020.
  38. ^ "Knuth: Computers and Typesetting". www-cs-faculty.stanford.edu. Archived from the original on April 11, 2019. Retrieved July 19, 2019.
  39. ^ "The Definitive, Non-Technical Introduction to LaTeX, Professional Typesetting and Scientific Publishing". Math Vault. September 5, 2015. Archived from the original on July 24, 2019. Retrieved July 19, 2019.
  40. ^ de Groot, Martin (November 3, 2018). "Arts and Culture: A polymath brings his genius to bear on a multimedia work for pipe organ". Waterloo Region Record.
  41. ^ O'Connor, J. J.; Robertson, E. F. (2015). "Donald Ervin Knuth". University of St Andrews. Archived from the original on October 5, 2017. Retrieved October 20, 2017.
  42. ^ Reutenauer, Arthur. "A brief history of TeX, volume II". TUGboat: 68–72. ISSN 0896-3207.
  43. ^ a b Knuth, Donald Ervin (1980). 计算机程序设计技巧 (Ji suan ji cheng xu she ji ji qiao) [The Art of Computer Programming]. Translated by Guan, JiWen; Su, Yunlin. Beijing: Defense Industry Publishing Co. I fondly hope that many Chinese computer programmers will learn to recognize my Chinese name Gao Dena, which was given to me by Francis Yao just before I visited your country in 1977. I still have very fond memories of that three-week visit, and I have been glad to see Gao Dena on the masthead of the Journal of Computer Science and Technology since 1989. This name makes me feel close to all Chinese people although I cannot speak your language.
  44. ^ "Donald Knuth: 85 – Coping with cancer". Web of Stories. April 2006. Retrieved May 2, 2012.[permanent dead link]
  45. ^ "Rewriting the Bible in 0s and 1s". Technology Review. Archived from the original on February 16, 2013.
  46. ^ Knuth, Donald Ervin (June 1957). "The Potrzebie System of Weights & Measures". Mad Magazine. No. 33. Archived from the original on November 6, 2018. Retrieved March 26, 2020.
  47. ^ Kidder, Tracy (2016). A Truck Full of Money. Random House. p. 68. ISBN 9780812995244.
  48. ^ Don Knuth (2010). "TUG". Zeeba TV. Archived from the original on March 25, 2016. Retrieved March 26, 2020conference
  49. ^ Knuth, Donald Ervin, An Earth‐shaking announcement, Zeeba TVvideo recording
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External linksEdit