Blue Shield International
The Blue Shield, formerly the International Committee of the Blue Shield, is an international organization founded in 1996 to protect the world's cultural heritage from threats such as armed conflict and natural disasters. Described as the "cultural equivalent of the Red Cross, its name derives from the blue shield symbol used to signify cultural sites protected by the 1954 Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in Armed Conflict.
Logo of the Blue Shield
|Formation||The Blue Shield was formed in 2016 from the amalgamation of ICBS (1996) and ANCBS (2006). They adopted this logo in 2018.|
|Headquarters||Registered in the Netherlands, but the paid staff are located in Newcastle University, England|
|Fields||Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict Cultural property|
|Karl von Habsburg|
|Peter G. Stone|
The Blue Shield's mission statement is in their statutes. It is a network of committees of dedicated individuals across the world that is “committed to the protection of the world’s cultural property, and is concerned with the protection of cultural and natural heritage, tangible and intangible, in the event of armed conflict, natural- or human-made disaster.” (Article 2.1, Blue Shield Statutes 2016)
Following the Second World War, which saw extensive damage and widespread theft of cultural heritage throughout Europe and Asia, the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) was founded in 1946 with the official aim of promoting peace, development, and dialogue through cultural exchange and preservation. At the behest of the Netherlands, UNESCO helped draft and sponsor the Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict, the first widely ratified international treaty that focused exclusively on the protection of cultural property in armed conflict; it entered into force on 7 August 1956, obligating states parties to protect cultural property in both peacetime and war, including those located in combatant nations.
The International Committee of the Blue Shield (ICBS) was established in 1996 by the four major non-governmental heritage organisations, which represent professionals active in the fields of archives, libraries, monuments and sites, and museums:
- ICA: International Council on Archives
- ICOM: International Council of Museums
- ICOMOS: International Council on Monuments and Sites
- IFLA: International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions
to further the protection of heritage in conflict. Article 27.3 of the 1954 Hague Convention Second Protocol (1999) explicitly mentions the International Committee of the Blue Shield as an advisory body to the Committee for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict. The four organisations worked together to prepare for, and respond to, emergency situations that could affect cultural heritage. They were joined in 2005 by the CCAAA (Co-ordinating Council of Audiovisual Archives Associations), who later left in 2012. The 'founding four' supplied a Secretariat for the organisation which rotated once every three years between them. Julien Anfruns was President of the International Committee of the Blue Shield (ICBS) between 2009 and 2013.
By 2000, national committees had begun to form to protect cultural heritage in their countries. In 2006, a conference Towards Solid Organisation: Infrastructure and Awareness was held at the Hague in the Netherlands, attended by the national committees and the ICBS. At this event, the Hague Accord was written, establishing the Association of National Committees of the Blue Shield (ANCBS) to coordinate the work of the national committees. The ANCBS came into formal existence in 2008: Karl von Habsburg was appointed as the first President. During this time, he undertook a number of fact finding missions to countries in conflict to learn more about the damage to their cultural heritage.
While in many wars the freedom of movement of the United Nations personnel is significantly restricted due to security concerns, Blue Shield is considered to be particularly suitable due to its structure to act flexibly and autonomously in really dangerous armed conflicts. Joris Kila, art historian for Blue Shield and the "Competence Center for Cultural Heritage" at the University of Vienna, sums it up as follows: "Unesco and other institutions consider it too dangerous to inspect the places in Libya themselves, whether they are were damaged or not. So Karl von Habsburg and I decided that we had to do it ourselves. We were in Ras-Almergib, a site right next to Leptis Magna, where a radar and air defense station of the Gaddafi troops was destroyed, less than 15 meters away from a Roman fort that remained intact. The ancient site was on our list."
ANCBS Fact Finding Mission Egypt, 2011. Karl von Habsburg is on the right
ANCBS Fact Finding mission to Egypt, 2011 - Karl von Habsburg
Blue Shield First Assessment Mission to Libya, September 28 to 30, 2011. Karl von Habsburg is on the left, and Hafed Walda on the right.
In terms of cultural property protection, there is therefore intensive cooperation between Blue Shield, the United Nations and UNESCO. The cooperation between UNESCO and Blue Shield International is to be further strengthened, according to the then Director General of UNESCO Irina Bokova. "UNESCO and Blue Shield International share a common goal" and "We seek to protect cultural property, and, by extension, humanity’s cultural legacy", said Bokova in October 2017 at a conference of Blue Shield International.
In 2016, ICBS and ANCBS amalgamated to become simply “The Blue Shield”, amending the ANCBS statutes to reflect these changes, and registering the Blue Shield as an Association in the Netherlands. These statutes were formally approved by the Blue Shield General Assembly (2017) in Vienna.
Language preservation is also protection of cultural heritage, as Habsburg states. "Today, on average, we lose one language in the world every six weeks. There are approximately 6800 languages. But four percent of the population speaks 96 percent of the languages, and 96 percent of the population speaks four percent of the languages. These four percent are spoken by large language groups and are therefore not at risk. But 96 percent of the languages we know are more or less at risk. You have to treat them like extinct species."
A special concern of Blue Shield International is the protection of cultural heritage during military peace operations. 40 lecturers and participants from America, Denmark, Lebanon, Italy, Croatia, Slovakia and Austria had the opportunity at the "Blue Helmet Forum 2019" to deal with the topic. Experiences of the US Army, operational experience in Iraq and Afghanistan and the establishment of a separate Italian cultural property unit were also discussed. Karl von Habsburg spoke about the need to protect cultural property not only during and after conflicts, but also outside of armed conflicts.
The Blue Shield is formed from national committees around the world, coordinated by an International Board - Blue Shield International (BSI). BSI maintains a list of national committees on their website.
The BSI Board is formed from nine people. There are four nominated representatives from ICA, ICOM, ICOMOS, and IFLA. The General Assembly also votes in four members who have stood for election from national committees. In 2017, the elected board members were:
- Georgia - Manana Tevzadze, lecturer at Ilia State University, consultant and member of ICOM and ICOMOS
- S. Korea - Kidong Bae, Director General of the National Museum of Korea, Chairperson of the ICOM ASPAC, and Professor Emeritus of Hanyang University
- USA - Nancy Wilkie, William H. Laird Professor of Classics, Anthropology and the Liberal Arts, Emerita at Carleton College in Northfield
- UK - Peter G. Stone, UNESCO Chair for Cultural Property and Peace, Newcastle University and former Secretary of ANCBS
Karl von Habsburg was appointed as the first President of the Blue Shield at the 2017 General Assembly; Peter Stone was appointed as the Vice-President; and Manana Tevzade was appointed Secretary and temporary Treasurer. A new board is appointed every three years at the General Assembly.
In support of Peter Stone's work in cultural property protection, Newcastle University funded the first full-time Secretariat for the organisation in 2017, consisting of one part time and one full time staff member - Dr Paul Fox, and Dr Emma Cunliffe.
Mission and areas of activityEdit
The Blue Shield is a network of committees of dedicated individuals across the world that is: “committed to the protection of the world’s cultural property, and is concerned with the protection of cultural and natural heritage, tangible and intangible, in the event of armed conflict, natural- or human-made disaster.” (Article 2.1, Blue Shield Statutes 2016)
The key goals of the Blue Shield are laid out in Article 2 of the Blue Shield Statutes 2016. They are to:
- protect cultural and natural heritage – tangible and intangible – from the effects of conflict and environmental disaster;
- promote the ratification of, respect for, and implementation of, the 1954 Hague Convention and its two Protocols;
- raise awareness of the importance of protecting heritage in emergency situations;
- promote and provide relevant training (to heritage professionals, the armed forces, other emergency responders, and those involved in preventing the illicit trafficking of looted objects);
- promote community engagement with and participation in protecting cultural property (CP);
- encourage co-operation with, and between, other relevant entities involved in emergency situations.
The work of the Blue Shield is underpinned by international law – in particular, the 1954 Hague Convention on the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict and its two Protocols of 1954 and 1999, which are considered to be part of international humanitarian law (IHL). IHL, also known as the Law of War or Law of Armed Conflict, is a set of rules which seek, for humanitarian reasons, to limit the effects of armed conflict on people and property. This primary context is also informed by a number of other international legal instruments, by the international cultural protection agenda as set by the UN and UNESCO, and by international initiatives regarding environmental disaster such as the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction. Although the 1954 Hague Convention and its two Protocols refer to cultural property, recognising the developments in our understanding of culture across the world, and the different ways it manifests, the Blue Shield deals with the broader concept of cultural heritage.
Blue Shield’s mission and goals are delivered through six proactive areas of activity. With respect to cultural property protection (CPP) in the event of armed conflict and natural/human-made disasters, the Blue Shield works in the areas of:
- Proactive protection and risk preparedness;
- Emergency response;
- Stabilisation, post-disaster recovery, and long-term/ongoing support activities;
- Legal compliance, policy, and their implementation;
- Capacity building activities, and education and training in support of the Blue Shield’s Areas of Activity;
- Co-ordination – of Blue Shield members and with partner organisations.
The Blue Shield realises these Areas of Activity in the following national and international contexts:
- Contributing the development and delivery of plans and actions for proactive planning, emergency response, stabilisation, post-disaster recovery, and long-term/ongoing support activities at the national and international level, coordinating support to affected national committees from the international community as requested.
- Promoting and developing understanding of the international laws which underpin the Blue Shield’s work
- Contributing to the development of policies in relation to national and international cultural protection agendas, and promoting their implementation.
- Developing policy for the Blue Shield, and interpreting and implementing it at the national level. BSI recognises that its work must be interpreted in a national context, taking account of national legislation and policy.
- Working with partners to support capacity building activities and develop and deliver education and training materials and courses in support of the Blue Shield’s Areas of Activity.
- Co-ordinating the work of the Blue Shield national committees, and national / international partners. Blue Shield does not work in isolation. International partners include: UNESCO, ICA, ICOM, ICOMOS, IFLA and other international heritage organisations; NATO and other multi-national forces; and other international organisations involved in cultural property protection. National partners include: government departments, national ministries of defence, emergency response units, and other national organisations involved in CPP, such as national committees or branches of ICA, ICOM, ICOMOS, IFLA, and the National Commissions of UNESCO.
The Blue Shield formally adopted the Four Tier Approach to the protection of cultural property in the event of armed conflict at its 2017 General Assembly, describing the four times when heritage professionals aim to work with armed forces to protect cultural property. Blue Shield International is committed to providing training in cultural property protection for members of armed forces around the world, and lists NATO amongst its partners. In addition to their work with NATO, in 2017-2018, they contributed to training for national armed forces in Georgia, peacekeeping forces deployed by Fiji, and ran exercises at an international workshop in Austria.
ICBS adopted the emblem of the 1954 Hague Convention that designates cultural property that should be protected, and for identification of those working to protect it – the blue shield. The cultural emblem is a protective symbol used during armed conflicts, and its use is restricted under international law. In order to avoid confusion with the emblem, the ANCBS adopted a new symbol - they took up the emblem of the Convention as a symbol of their protective work, but lightened the royal blue, and set it in a cyan blue circular background. The strapline of ANCBS was "Protecting The World's Cultural Heritage During Emergency Situations".
When ICBS and ANCBS merged in 2016, the decision was taken to re-brand to symbolise the new Blue Shield organisation. In 2018, a new logo was formally adopted by the Blue Shield International Board. The Blue Shield logo is the royal blue shield emblem of the 1954 Hague Convention, set within a mid-blue circle, symbolising both Blue Shield’s roots and focus on the Hague Convention and armed conflict, and the wider remit it encompasses today. As part of the rebranding, the Blue Shield changed its strapline to "Protecting Heritage in Crisis".
The Blue Shield logo is used as a visible sign to indicate the Blue Shield International Board and shows the officially registered national committees of the Blue Shield across the world. It should be used to raise the visibility of the name and logo of the Blue Shield organisation by linking its name and organisation to activities of those it works with.
- "Blue Shield International: History".
- UNIFIL - Action plan to preserve heritage sites during conflict, 12 Apr 2019.
- The ICRC and the Blue Shield signed a Memorandum of Understanding, 26 February 2020.
- Friedrich Schipper: "Bildersturm: Die globalen Normen zum Schutz von Kulturgut greifen nicht" (German - The global norms for the protection of cultural property do not apply), In: Der Standard, 6 March 2015.
- Toman, Jiri (1996). The Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict. Legal Monographs and Treatises. 11. https://digitalcommons.law.scu.edu/monographs/11/: Dartmouth Publishing Company, Brookfield. ISBN 978-1855217935.CS1 maint: location (link)
- "ICOM and the International Committee of the Blue Shield". ICOM.
- "UNESCO Legal Instruments: Second Protocol to the Hague Convention of 1954 for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict 1999".
- "UNESCO: Armed Conflict and Heritage. Partners".
- Bogoeski, Krste (2016). "Twenty Years Blue Shield (1996-2016)": 20–24. doi:10.17159/assaf.2016/0010. Cite journal requires
- "ICBS Meetings, the 2004 Torino Declaration and 2006 Hague Accord creating ANCBS". 18 June 2006.
- "Founding Conference on ANCBS, The Hague, December 2008".
- "Blue Shield Missions". Blue Shield International.
- Joris Kila in Monument Men der Gegenwart. Schutz vor Bomben und Plünderungen., (German) In: Kölner Stadt Anzeiger, 20 February 2014.
- Eric Gibson: The Destruction of Cultural Heritage Should be a War Crime. In: The Wall Street Journal, 2 March 2015.
- Roger O’Keefe, Camille Péron, Tofig Musayev, Gianluca Ferrari: Protection of Cultural Property. Military Manual. UNESCO, 2016, S. 73ff.
- Sabine von Schorlemer: Kulturgutzerstörung. Die Auslöschung von Kulturerbe in Krisenländern als Herausforderung für die Vereinten Nationen., (German), 2016, S. 785ff.
- UNESCO Director-General calls for stronger cooperation for heritage protection at the Blue Shield International General Assembly. UNESCO, 13 September 2017.
- Blue Shield Statutes (2016)
- "General Assembly 2017, Vienna, Austria". 30 September 2017.
- Interview with Karl von Habsburg (German) in RP-Online, 18 October 2018.
- "Blue Helmet Forum 2019 - Protection of Cultural Heritage in Peace Operations", Austrian Armed Forces
- "Blue Shield International: Meet the Board". The Blue Shield.
- "Blue Shield International: Who we are".
- "Blue Shield: What we Do".
- Stone, Peter G. (2013). "A four-tier approach to the protection of cultural property in the event of armed conflict". Antiquity. 87 (335): 166–177. doi:10.1017/S0003598X00048699.
- "Blue Shield International: Partners".
- Blue Shield International (19 September 2018). "BSI invited to speak at 11th CIMIC Units Commanders' Conference".
- Blue Shield International (23 November 2017). "Blue Shield to assist in NATO Exercise Trident Jaguar 2018".
- Culture Sector (4 October 2018). "Training course on the protection of cultural property in the event of armed conflict in Georgia". UNESCO.
- Blue Shield International (28 October 2018). "Blue Shield International supports training in Georgia with UNESCO". Blue Shield International.
- "Partnering with the Fiji Military for Cultural Property Protection". UNESCO Office in Apia. 25 November 2018.
- "Blue Shield International Facebook post". Facebook. 23 November 2018.
- Blue Shield International (19 November 2018). "CPP features prominently at Coping with Culture Conference".
- "The Blue Shield Logo: Guidance for Use".
- George P. Mackenzie (2000) Working for the Protection of the World's Cultural Heritage: The International Committee of the Blue Shield. In: Journal of the Society of Archivists. 24(1), Routledge & The Society of Archivists, pp. 5–10, ISSN 1465-3907.
- Marie-Thérèse Varlamoff (2002) The Blue Shield Initiative. Joining Efforts to Preserve our Cultural Heritage in Danger. In: Liber Quarterly. The Journal of European Research Libraries. 12(2–3), Utrecht Publishing & Archiving Services, pp. 275–282, ISSN 1435-5205.
- T. Aglassa (c.2002) Blue Shield in Benin. In: ICOM Cultural Heritage Disaster Preparedness and Response
- Corine Koch (Übers., Ed.) (2003) A Blue Shield for the Protection of our Endangered Cultural Heritage. International Preservation Issues Number Four. International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions, Paris, ISBN 2-91-274302-8.
- Ross Shimmon (2004) The International Committee of the Blue Shield 1998–2004: An Overview. In: Alexandria. The Journal of National and International Library and Information Issues. 16(3). Ashgate Publishing & the British Library, pp. 133–141, ISSN 0955-7490.
- Kryste Bogoeski (2016). Twenty Years Blue Shield (1996 - 2016)
- Patty Gerstenblith, and Nancy C. Wilkie (2017) The U.S. Committee of the Blue Shield and the Blue Shield Movement, NATO Legal Gazette 38, 70-79.
- Peter G. Stone. (2013). A four-tier approach to the protection of cultural property in the event of armed conflict. Antiquity, 87(335), 166-177. doi:10.1017/S0003598X00048699
- Peter G. Stone (2017) Protecting cultural property in the event of armed conflict: the work of the Blue Shield, Adelaide Law School Research Unit on Military Law and Ethics RUMLAE Research Paper No. 17-02
- Emma Cunliffe, Paul Fox and Peter G Stone. 2018. The Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict: Unnecessary Distraction or Mission-Relevant Priority? NATO OPEN 2 (4) Summer 2018
- The Blue Shield website
- The Blue Shield Facebook page
- The Blue Shield Twitter page
- National Committees around the world on the Blue Shield website
- UNESCO: Armed Conflict and Heritage
- The 1954 Hague Convention for the Protection of Cultural Property in the Event of Armed Conflict and its two Protocols (1954, 1999)